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A** 



AN ALBUM OF DATED 
SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



BY 
WILLIAM HENRY PAINE HATCH 

Ph. D. (Harvard), D. D. (Union Theological Seminary, New York), 

D. Theol. (Strasbourg) 

Professor in the Episcopal Theological School 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. 

THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

MDCCCCXLVI 



VS 






The publication of this work has been made possible by a con- 
tribution from Professor James R. Jewett of Harvard University 
and by grants from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
and the American Council of Learned Societies. 



MADE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



M:T:H 

CONIVGI 
FIDELISSIMAE ATQVE CARISSIMAE 



PLATES BY MERIDEN GRAVURE COMPANY 

COMPOSED AND PRINTED BY THE 
J. H. FURST COMPANY, BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

The present work contains two hundred facsimiles, each representing 
a page of a dated Syriac manuscript. Great care has been taken to select 
as clear and legible a page as possible for reproduction. Each facsimile is 
accompanied by a palaeographical description of the codex in question. 
Whenever the passage which is reproduced has been published elsewhere, 
reference is made to the place where it can be found. If the passage was 
translated from a Greek original and has not been published in Syriac, a 
reference is given to the Greek text. Whenever a fuller description of a 
manuscript is available, the reader is referred to it in a footnote. 

In nearly all cases the writer has seen and examined the codices of which 
facsimiles and descriptions are given. In a very few instances, however, 
he has been obliged to rely upon others for photographs and descriptions, 
because he was unable to visit the library or convent in which the manuscript 
is preserved. Three of the Plates (XLVI, CXCIX, and CC) have been 
made from photographs which were taken from facsimiles in published 
works. 1 For permission to photograph and reproduce these facsimiles the 
writer is indebted to the authorities of the Cambridge University Press. 

In the Introduction various matters of palaeographical interest are dis- 
cussed, such as writing materials, pens, ink, styles of writing, observations 
on the forms of certain letters, etc. What is said concerning the forms of 
letters and the use of writing materials, the various Syriac points, punctua- 
tion, etc. is based on a study of the codices which are represented in the 
present collection. Several indexes have been added at the end in order to 
make the contents of the work easily accessible. 

The different styles or types of Syriac handwriting are represented, viz. : 
the Estranged (Plates I-XCIV), the Sertd (Plates XCV-CLIX), the Nes- 
torian (Plates CLX-CLXXXIII), the Melkite (Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII), 
and the Palestinian (Plates CXCVIII-CC). So far as is known, the three 
Palestinian manuscripts of which facsimiles and descriptions are here given 

1 See R. L. Bensly, J. R. Harris, and F. C. Burkitt, The Four Gospels in Syriac 
transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest (Cambridge, 1894); an< i A. S. Lewis, Cata- 
logue of the Syriac MSS. in the Convent of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai (London. 
1894). 






VI 



PREFACE 



are the only extant examples of this script that are dated by the scribe. The 
facsimiles which illustrate each of these hands are grouped together in 
chronological order. 

The writer's aim has been to include in this work a page in facsimile 
and a description of every dated Syriac codex which was copied before the 
end of the tenth century after Christ, and after making a diligent search 
he knows of only one dated Syriac manuscript written before iooo A. D. 
which is not represented in the present collection. 2 Somewhat more than 
one-half of the specimens antedate the year iooo, and the rest range in 
date from the beginning of the eleventh century to the end of the sixteenth. 
Among the many extant codices which were produced after the close of the 
tenth century the writer has tried to choose representative examples. 

The script of the manuscripts is reproduced in approximately its actual 
size unless the writing on a page exceeds 22.2 cm. (8.7 inches) in height 
and 16.2 cm, (6.4 inches) in width. In that case the page is shewn on a 
reduced scale, and one or more lines of the text are given below the facsimile 
of the script. So far as is possible, the actual size of the letters is indicated 
in these lines. 

Many facsimiles of Syriac codices have been published by earlier workers 
in this field, viz.: J. G. C. Adler, Novi Testamenti Versiones Syriacae 
(Copenhagen, 1789), Tabb. I-VIII; J. B. Silvestre, Paleographie universelle 
(Paris, 1 839-1 841), Tome I; C. Tischendorf, Anecdota Sacra et Prof ana 
(Leipzig, 1 861), Tab. IV; J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1862- 
1875), I, Tabb. B and I-XXV; and IV, Tabb. I-VIII; W. Wright, Catalogue 
of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), 
Part III, Plates I-XX; the Palaeographical Society, Facsimiles of Manuscripts 

2 After the work was completed and the plates were made, I found in an old 
catalogue a mention of an Estrangela manuscript in the Herzog-August-Bibliothek in 
Wolfenbiittel which is said to have been written in the year 945 (Cod. 3. 1. 300). 
It contains the Four Gospels; and according to Athanasius Kircher, who presented the 
codex to Duke August in 1666, the text "ubique consentit cum illo, qui in bibliis 
polyglottis Antwerpianis habetur," i. e. the Peshitta version. See F. A. Ebert, Catalogus 
Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium Bibliothecae Ducalis Guelferbytanae (ap- 
pended to H. O. Fleischer's Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium Bihlio- 
thecae Regiae Dresdensis, Leipzig, 1831), pp. 76 f. On account of the unsettled 
conditions prevailing in Europe at the present time it is impossible for me either to 
see the codex myself or to obtain a photograph and description of it from someone 
else. However, the writer believes that the work will prove to be practically as useful 
to scholars as it would have been with this manuscript represented. 



PREFACE 



vn 



and Inscriptions, Oriental Series (London, 1 875-1 883), Plates XI, XXVII, 
XXXIX, LII, LXVI, LXXVI, and XCIX; and E. Tisserant, Specimina 
Codicum Orientalium (Bonn, 19 14), Plates 20-39. 

The reproductions in the volumes of Silvestre, Wright, the Palaeo- 
graphical Society, and Tisserant are more satisfactory than those in the works 
of Adler, Tischendorf, and Land. 3 The manuscripts from which Silvestre's 
six facsimiles are taken are in the Bibliotheque Nationale, and they range 
in date from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. Wright's twenty plates 
are made from codices which belong to the unsurpassed collection of Syriac 
manuscripts in the British Museum, and they are all palaeographically im- 
portant. Tisserant gives facsimiles of twenty Syriac codices in his volume 
on Oriental palaeography. The manuscripts are of various dates, and they 
are well chosen with a view to illustrating the several Syriac hands in 
different periods. Most of the works mentioned above contain facsimiles 
both of dated and of undated codices. 

The purpose of the present work is twofold — first to illustrate the de- 
velopment of Syriac handwriting from the time of the earliest dated manu- 
scripts down to the end of the sixteenth century, and secondly to provide 
materials for determining the approximate date of undated codices. It is 
believed that the specimens are sufficiently numerous and varied in char- 
acter to serve this purpose. 

In order to date undated manuscripts it is necessary to compare them 
with texts which are dated by the scribe. Therefore only dated codices can 
furnish a firm and secure basis for the science of palaeography. With four 
exceptions each manuscript represented in this collection is dated by the 
copyist. 4 In every case the writer has assured himself, by comparing the 

3 The facsimiles given by Land in op. cit., IV, Tabb. I-V are made from photo- 
graphs and are superior to the others published by him. 

4 Add. MS. 14610 (No. DCCXXVIII) and Add. MS. 14486 (No. CCXXI) in 
the British Museum are not dated by the scribes. However, at the beginning of 
Add. MS. 1 46 10 (Plate XXI) there is a table for finding the days of various festivals, 
etc.; and this table begins with the Seleucid year 862. This is probably the year in 
which the codex was written. According to the colophon Add. MS. 14486 (Plate 
LXV) was bound in the Seleucid year 1135. The copying of the codex was probably 
completed in the same year. So, too, the years in which Add. MS. 171 72 (No. 
DCCLXXX) in the British Museum (Plate LXIII) and Cod. Vat. Sir. 94 in the 
Vatican Library (Plate CXVIII) were written are not given by the copyists, but the 
dates can be determined within twelve and twenty-seven years respectively from the 
fact that the ruling patriarchs and metropolitans are mentioned. 






Vlll 



PREFACE 



PREFACE 



IX 



handwriting of the colophon with that of the text contained in the codex, 
that both were written by the same hand. It is hoped that the present 
collection of dated Syriac manuscripts may provide a solid foundation for 
the science of Syriac palaeography. 

Several scholars in Europe and America have given the writer valuable 
counsel and assistance, and to each of them he wishes to express his hearty 
thanks: to Giovanni Cardinal Mercati and to Eugene Cardinal Tisserant of 
the Vatican Library; to Monsignore Giovanni Galbiati of the Ambrosian 
Library in Milan; to the Abbe J. B. Chabot of Paris; to the late Professor 
Adolf Deissmann and to Dr. Gotthold Weil of Berlin; to Professor Axel 
Moberg of Lund; to Dr. P. Jernstedt and to Mme. N. Pigulewsky of Lenin- 
grad; to the late Professor F. C. Burkitt of Cambridge; to Mr. J. Levine of 
the British Museum; to Mr. Cyril Moss of London; to Professor James A. 
Montgomery of the University of Pennsylvania; to Professor Charles C. 
Torrey of Yale University; to Professor Martin Sprengling of the University 
of Chicago; to Professors Albert M. Friend, Jr., and Philip K. Hitti of 
Princeton University; to Professor William F. Albright of the Johns Hopkins 
University; and to Professors Arthur D. Nock, William Thomson, Arthur 
Stanley Pease, George S. Forbes, and Dr. Robert H. Pfeiffer of Harvard 
University. I also desire to record my indebtedness to the late Professor 
George Foot Moore of Harvard, who was always ready to aid me with his 
abundant learning and sound judgment. None of these scholars, however, 
is in any way responsible for any errors or omissions which may be found 
in the volume. 

Professor Robert P. Blake of Harvard, the Chairman of the Publication 
Committee of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, has shewn much 
interest in the work and has also rendered invaluable aid in the publication 
of it. His technical knowledge of printing and the making of collotype 
plates has been freely placed at my disposal, and to him I am deeply indebted. 

Finally, I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Victor J. Furst of 
Baltimore and to Mr. P. B. Allen of Meriden, Connecticut, to whose skill 
in their respective crafts this volume is a witness. The former selected the 
paper and the type and bestowed much care upon the printing, and to the 
latter are due in large measure the clearness and beauty of the plates. 

A considerable subsidy was needed in order to publish this Album of 
Dated Syriac Manuscripts. To this end Professor James R. Jewett of Har- 
vard University very kindly made a generous contribution. This gift was 






supplemented in due time by substantial grants from the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences and from the American Council of Learned Societies. 
To Dr. Jewett, to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and to the 
American Council of Learned Societies the writer wishes to express his most 
cordial thanks. Without this financial assistance the publication of the work 
would have been impossible. 

William Henry Paine Hatch 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
October 30, 1941. 



INTRODUCTION 



INTRODUCTION 



I. Writing Materials 

II. Pens . 

III. Ink . . . 

IV. Mode of Writing 
V. Columns 

VI. Ruling 

VII. Colophon 

VIII. Dating 

IX. Miniatures 

X. Quires . 

XI. Styles of Writing 

XII. Observations on the Forms of Certain Letters . 

XIII. Seyame, the Single Point, Qiishshaya and Rukkaka 

Occultans 

XIV. Punctuation 

XV. Gershuni 

XVI. Periods in the History of Syriac Handwriting . 



and Lima 



PAGE 

3 
8 

10 
ii 
13 
14 
17 
18 
20 
22 
24 
3° 

40 
42 
42 

44 



I 



WRITING MATERIALS 

In ancient times books were made of papyrus and vellum, and in the 
mediaeval period paper was introduced. So far as is known, however, no 
Syriac manuscript composed of papyrus is extant; but both vellum and 
paper were used by the Syrians in the making of codices. The word vellum 
properly means calfskin Qpellis vitulina) artificially prepared to receive 
writing; but in modern use the term includes also the skins of sheep, goats, 
kids, and gazelles. 

Vellum was highly esteemed as a writing material in antiquity. It was 
not only thin, smooth, and flexible; but it was also strong and durable. 
Moreover, on account of its strength and flexibility it was much better 
adapted for use in a roll or codex than papyrus, of which rolls and codices 
were often made. Papyrus was too susceptible to wear and tear and too 
easily broken to be entirely satisfactory for this purpose. 

According to a tradition preserved by the Roman scholar and antiquarian 
Varro vellum was first made at Pergamum in western Asia Minor in the 
first half of the second century before Christ. Eumenes II (197-1 59 B. C.) 
desired to have a great library at Pergamum like the celebrated one at 
Alexandria, and he needed large quantities of papyrus for the copying of 
literary works. The reigning Ptolemy, however, being jealous of the new 
institution and not wishing to aid it in any way, would not permit papyrus 
to be exported from Egypt to Pergamum. Therefore Eumenes was obliged 
to find a substitute, and the skins of animals were made into vellum to take 
the place of papyrus. 1 Vellum proved to be a most satisfactory kind of 
writing material. 

Varro's account of the invention of vellum is certainly to be regarded as 
legend rather than as history. 2 Probably a better quality of vellum was 
manufactured at Pergamum in the reign of Eumenes II, and doubtless in 
the course of time the city became noted for the manufacture and export 
of this commodity. 

1 See Pliny, N.H. XIII, 11, 70. See also Jerome, Ep. VII (Migne, Patr.Lat., 
XXII, col. 339). 

2 See Th. Birt, Das antike Buchwesen (Berlin, 1882), pp. 50 f. 



4 AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 

Vellum was probably prepared among the Syrians in essentially the same 
way as it was among the Greeks. The hide was not tanned, as in the manu- 
facture of leather. First it was put into limewater and thoroughly soaked. 
Then it was taken out of this bath, and the hair was scraped off. Next the 
skin was stretched on a frame and allowed to dry. Finally it was rubbed with 
chalk and pumice stone until it was even and smooth. Sometimes small 
particles of chalk can still be seen on the surface of vellum. The details of 
this process probably varied more or less at different times and in different 
places. 3 

Vellum, as was said above, was made of the skins of various animals; 
and it was prepared with varying degrees of skill and care. Hence it varied 
greatly in quality. The earliest Syriac manuscripts, which were written in 
the fifth century after Christ, are of vellum. The skin is of a fine quality, 
white, and well prepared to serve its purpose. Later, however, when skins 
were scarcer and more expensive and when the demand probably was greater, 
a coarser and cheaper grade of vellum was often employed. 4 

Since vellum was expensive and sometimes difficult to obtain, it was not 
an uncommon practice to erase the writing of a codex by washing or rubbing 
or scraping, and then to use the vellum for another work. Such manuscripts 
are known as palimpsests. Occasionally not only the first but also the second 
text was removed, and the same piece of vellum was thus made ready to 
serve the needs of a third scribe. 5 Usually the lower writing of a palimpsest 
is considerably older than the upper hand; because as a rule only old books, 
which were felt to have outlived their usefulness, or fragments of books, 
which Were thought to have no special value, were subjected to the process 
described above and used as writing material for the second or third time. 

In most cases, however, the original writing was not completely destroyed, 
even though it was temporarily quite obliterated; and with the lapse of time 

8 For a Coptic recipe for the making of vellum see W. E. Crum in Proceedings 
of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, XXVII, pp. 166 ff. 

4 On vellum see W. Wattenbach, Das Schriftwesen im Mittelalter (second ed., 
Leipzig, 1875), PP- 93 #•; Th. Birt, op. cit., pp. 46 ff.; V. Gardthausen, Griechische 
Palaeographie (second ed., Leipzig, 1911-1913), I, pp. 91 ff.; Sir E. M. Thompson, 
An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford, 1912), pp. 28 ff.; and 
W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 

x 939)> PP- 7#- 

5 The following manuscripts in the British Museum are double palimpsests: Add. 

MS. 14665 (No. DCCCCLV), fol. 3; Add. MS. 17136 (No. CCCCXXVII), foil. 
117, 120, 126, 137, and 139; and Add. MS. 17212 (No. DXCVIII) except fol. 9. 







WRITING MATERIALS 5 

and through the action of the atmosphere it not infrequently became again 
visible and even legible. Certain chemical reagents, such as ammonium 
hydrosulphide, will often bring out temporarily a text that is too faint to be 
read without some such aid. 6 In recent years the ultra-violet lamp has been 
a great help in reading the lower writing of palimpsests. By means of ultra- 
violet rays it is possible to read letters and words which are otherwise quite 
illegible. But even under the most favourable conditions the decipherment 
of the lower writing of a palimpsest is an exacting task for the eyes. 7 

Since Syriac codices were naturally more common than any others in 
Syrian monasteries, they were generally the ones that were taken apart and 
converted into palimpsests when vellum was needed. Sometimes, however, 
works in other languages were used for this purpose. Greek, Coptic, Arabic, 
and Latin texts were expunged in order to provide vellum for Syriac books. 8 
Sometimes on the other hand a Syriac text was sacrificed to obtain writing 
material for a Greek work. 9 

The earliest Syriac palimpsest that is dated, so far as is known, is Add. 
MS. 1 45 1 2 (No. CCCXII) in the British Museum. The lower writing on 
certain leaves of the codex is the Peshitta text of Isaiah, and one of the leaves 
is dated in the year 459-460 after Christ. The upper writing in this manu- 
script is a series of choral services for the principal festivals of the Christian 
year written in a Serta hand of the tenth century. 10 

Paper as well as vellum was used by Syrian scribes, and many Syriac 
manuscripts made of that material have been preserved. The art of manu- 

6 For other reagents see V. Gardthausen, op. cit., I, pp. 107 f. 

7 On palimpsests see W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit., p. 20. 

8 The lower writing is Greek in the following manuscripts in the British Museum : 
Add. MS. 17210 (No. DCLXXXVII); Add. MS. 17211 (No. DCLXXXVII); and 
Add. MS. 14665 (No. DCCCCLXXXI), foil. 8 and 9. In these the original text is 
Coptic: Add. MS. 14631 (No. DCCCVII), foil. 45-53; Add. MS. 17183 (No. 
DCCCXII); and Add. MS. 14665 (No. DCCCXXI), foil. 10-20. In Add. MS. 
17138 (No. CCCLIV) the lower writing is Arabic, and in Add. MS. 17212 (No. 
DXCVIII) it is Latin. 

9 This was done in the case of a fragment of Matthew and Luke which is in the 
Musee National in Damascus (Gregory 0196). A portion of the above-mentioned 
Gospels in a Greek uncial hand, apparently of the ninth century, is written over an 
Estrangela text of an early date. For a description and collation of this fragment see 
W. H. P. Hatch in The Harvard Theological Review, XXIII, pp. 149 ff. 

10 See Plate II. See also E. Tisserant in the Revue Bihlique, Nouvelle Serie, VIII, 
pp. 85 ff. For facsimiles of Greek palimpsests see W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit., Plates XX, 
XXIV, XXV, XXVI, and LI. 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



WRITING MATERIALS 



facturing paper was discovered by the Chinese at an early date, and through 
long practice they acquired great skill therein. Since it was strong and 
durable as well as flexible, and since it had a smooth surface, paper was an 
excellent writing material. 

It was inevitable that so useful a product should pass far beyond the 
confines of China, and by the middle of the eighth century after Christ 
paper had made its way westward as far as Turkestan. The Arabs became 
acquainted with it at Samarkand at about this time, and thereafter the use 
of it spread rapidly in Arabic-speaking countries. 

Paper was introduced into Syria as early as the first half of the tenth 
century, but few paper codices of this and the following century have sur- 
vived. 11 In the twelfth century the use of paper increased, but it was still 
much less used than vellum. 12 In the thirteenth century, however, paper 
gained the ascendancy over vellum; 13 and from that time onward it held 
the field almost to the exclusion of its older and more expensive rival. 14 
It grew rapidly in favour among the Syrians on account of its relative cheap- 
ness, and it was used for the copying of sacred as well as secular works. 
Nevertheless, in some quarters of the Near East vellum was employed even 
in the latter half of the sixteenth century. 15 

There are apparently no paper codices extant which antedate the ninth 
century of the Christian era. The earliest dated paper manuscript, so far 
as is known, was copied in 866 A. D. It contains the Gharib el-Hadith of 
Abu c Obaid el-Qasim ibn Sallam, a work on the rare words found in the 
sayings of Mohammed and his companions. 16 Some fragments of the Book 

11 See Plates CXVI, CXXIII, and CXXIV. 

12 In this collection there are facsimiles of sixteen manuscripts which were written 
in the twelfth century. Of these eleven are of vellum and five are of paper. 

13 The present collection contains facsimiles of twenty-seven codices which were 
copied in the thirteenth century. Of these eighteen are of paper and nine are of 
vellum. 

14 Thirty-seven manuscripts included in this collection were written in the four- 
teenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Of these thirty-six are of paper and only 
one is of vellum. The latter is an Estrangela codex which was copied, probably in 
Tur-'Abdin, in 1 567-1 568 A. D. See Plate XCIV. 

15 See Plate XCIV. 

16 Leiden, Universiteitsbibliothek, Cod. 298 Warner. See P. de Jong and M. J. 
de Goeje, Catalogus Codicum Orientalium Bibliothecae Academiae Lugduno-Batavae 
(Leiden, 1851-1877), IV, p. 49 (No. MDCCXXV). See V. Gardthausen, op. cit., 
I, p. 115; and Sir E. M. Thompson, op. eft., p. 35. On the codex see M. J. de Goeje 
in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XVIII, pp. 781 ff. For 



of the Himyarites and of a treatise of Timothy Aelurus against the Council 
of Chalcedon, which are dated in the year 932, are the earliest known 
example of a Syriac text written on paper. 17 

Paper was probably used as early as the ninth century by Greeks who 
lived under Arab rule or in close contact with Islamic civilization. 18 It was 
imported into Greece from the Near East, but the date of its introduction 
into that country is not known. Several paper codices containing Greek texts 
are extant which are dated in the thirteenth century. 19 The use of paper 
by Greek scribes was common in the fourteenth century, 20 and in the fif- 
teenth paper almost completely dominated the field. 21 

Originally paper was made of coarse fibres taken from the inner bark 
of certain plants. China grass (Boehmeria nivea Hook, et Arn.), flax, hemp, 
and the rind of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera Vent.) were 
manufactured into paper. In later times linen rags, sometimes mixed with 
a few cotton rags, were employed; but raw or unfabricated cotton was not 
used in the making of paper. 22 

facsimiles see de Goeje in op. cit., XVIII, opp. p. 788; and the Palaeographical Society, 
Facsimiles of Manuscripts and Inscriptions, Oriental Series (London, 1 875-1 883), 
Plate VI. 

17 See Plate CXVI. 18 See V. Gardthausen, op. cit., I, p. 1 17. 

19 See V. Gardthausen, op. cit., I, p. 118. For a facsimile and description of Codex 
Sinaiticus 201, the earliest of these dated manuscripts of the thirteenth century, see 
W. H. P. Hatch, The Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament at Mount Sinai 
(Paris, 1932), Plate XLVIII. 

20 There are fourteen New Testament manuscripts in the library of St. Catharine's 
Convent at Mount Sinai which are ascribed to the fourteenth century. Of these ten 
are of paper, three are of vellum, and one is partly of paper and partly of vellum. See 
W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit., Plates LVII-LXX. The library of the Greek Patriarchate 
in Jerusalem contains eighteen New Testament codices which are attributed to the 
fourteenth century. Of these sixteen are of paper and two are of vellum. See W. H. 
P. Hatch, The Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament in Jerusalem (Paris, 1934), 
Plates XLVI-LXIII. 

21 The library of St. Catharine's Convent at Mount Sinai contains seven New 
Testament manuscripts which are ascribed to the fifteenth century. Of these six are 
of paper and one is of vellirm. See W. H. P. Hatch, The Greek Manuscripts of the 
New Testament at Mount Sinai, Plates LXXI-LXXVII. In the library of the Greek 
Patriarchate in Jerusalem there is a New Testament codex which is attributed to the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century, and it is of paper. See W. H. P. Hatch, The Greek 
Manuscripts of the New Testament in Jerusalem, Plate LXIV. 

22 See J. Wiesner in Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog 
Rainer, Erster Jahrgang, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 45 f.; and ibid., II and III, p. 180; and 
J. Karabacek in Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer, 
II and III, pp. 87 f. and 129 ff. 




8 AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 

Oriental paper was treated with a starch size, which made the surface 
hard and smooth and gave it a glossy appearance. 23 It is usually thicker 
than Occidental paper, and it tears less easily than the latter. It is often 
yellowish or brownish in colour. Oriental paper was a comparatively inex- 
pensive and durable substitute for vellum, and it was quite as satisfactory 
for most purposes. 24 



II 
PENS 

Syrian scribes seem to have used both the quill and the reed pen, for 
both are mentioned in notes found in Syriac manuscripts. The earliest 
reference to the former (r^AujijM r£i-=>r^) occurs in a codex copied in 
509 A. D., 1 and it is altogether probable that the oldest extant Syriac manu- 
scripts were written with quill pens. 2 The point of a quill pen is sharp; and 
the lines made with it are fine and light, and the writing produced with a 
pen of this sort often has much grace and beauty. Such pens were ap- 
parently in use among the Syrians for several centuries. The latest mention 
of a quill pen in a Syriac codex, so far as is known, is in a manuscript of 
the tenth or eleventh century. 3 

On the other hand reed pens (r&n) axe also mentioned in notes pre- 
served in Syriac codices, but the manuscripts which contain these notes are 
comparatively late. The earliest reference to a reed pen in a Syriac codex, 

23 See J. Wiesner in op. cit., Erster Jahrgang, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 46 ff.; and ibid., 
II and III, p. 181; and V. Gardthausen, op. cit., I, p. 112. 

24 On paper see W. Wattenbach, op. cit., pp. 114 flF^; V. Gardthausen, op. cit., 
I, pp. 109 ff.; Sir E. M. Thompson, op. cit., pp. 34 ff.; and W. H. P. Hatch, The 
Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament, pp. 9 f . 

1 British Museum, Add. MS. 14542 (No. DXLVII), fol. 93 v. See Plate VII. 
Quill pens are also mentioned in the following manuscripts preserved in the British 
Museum: Add. MS. 14551 (No. DCXI), fol. 138 (saec. VIII); Add. MS. 12138 
(No. CLXI), fol. 311 (899 A.D.; see Plate CLXVI); and Add. MS. 17185 (No. 
DCCCXXII), fol. 61 (saec. X or XI). 

2 See J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1 862-1 875), I, pp. 58 f.; and 
R. Duval, Traite de grammaire syriaque (Paris, 1881), pp. 2 f. Dr. Wright, however, 
thinks that the references to quill pens in Syriac manuscripts are slavishly literal imita- 
tions of Greek formulae, and that Syrian scribes wrote only with reed pens. See 
W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 
1 870-1 872), Part III, p. xxvii. 

8 British Museum, Add. MS. 17185 (No. DCCCXXII), fol. 61. 



PENS 9 

so far as the present writer knows, is in a manuscript of the tenth or eleventh 
century. 4 But in the fifth century Isaac the Great of Antioch speaks of " the 
reed of the Spirit " (rdwcm t^»an) as a writing implement; 5 and in the ninth 
century Thomas of Marga relates that Rabban Cyriacus, when he was a 
monk at the Convent of Beth-* Abe in Mesopotamia, wrote an account of a 
vision which he had had on the wall of his cell with a reed (^*m). 6 More- 
over, reed pens were used by the Hebrews, 7 Greeks, 8 Copts, 9 and Arabs; 10 
and it is highly probable that they were employed by the Syrians at an 
early date. 11 The point of a reed pen is more blunt than that of a quill pen, 
and consequently it makes heavier and coarser lines. 12 However, a skillful 
scribe could produce a thin and graceful stroke with a reed pen. 

Both kinds of pens were probably used for a long time; but the reed 
gradually grew in favour, and finally it seems to have supplanted its rival 
and to have had the field entirely to itself. Reed pens are still employed 
in the Near East. 13 



4 British Museum, Add. MS. 17128 (No. CCXC), fol. i8ov. References to reed 
pens are also found in two other manuscripts preserved in the British Museum: 
Add. MS. 18715 (No. XXXII), fol. 39 (saec. XII); and Add. MS. 7149 (Rosen and 
Forshall, No. V), ad fin. Gate). 

6 See J. S. Assemani, Bihliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 1719-1728), I, p. 220. 

6 See J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Ill, Pars I, p. 490. See also R. Payne Smith in The 
Journal of Sacred Literature, New Series, III, pp. 189 f. 

7 See Jeremiah 8 : 8 and Psalm 45 : 2. In both passages the word used is tflj?. See 
also L. Low, Graphische Requisiten und Erzeugnisse hei den Juden (Leipzig, 1870- 
1871), I, pp. 174 ft. 

8 See Plato, Phaedrus 276 C (/caAajnoO- See also 3 Maccabees 4:20; 3 John 13; 
Pollux, Onom. X, 61; and Themistius, Or at. XV, 190 b. Reed pens are often repre- 
sented in Byzantine miniatures. See W. H. P. Hatch, Greek and Syrian Miniatures 
in Jerusalem (Cambridge, Mass., 1931), Plates XIX, XX, XXIII-XXXV, XXXIX, 
XLI-XLIII, XLV, and LIV. 

9 In a Coptic recipe for preparing vellum, which probably dates from the sixth 
or seventh century after Christ, the reed pen (kacp) is mentioned twice. See W. 
E. Crum in Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, XXVII, p. 168. 

10 See V. Gardthausen, Griechische Palaeographie (second ed., Leipzig, 191 1- 

*9 l $)> I> P- i9 2 - 

11 On the other hand Dr. Land thinks that the Syrians adopted the reed pen at a 
comparatively late date. According to him the use of it was common in the twelfth 
century. See J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, pp. 58 f.; and II, p. 13. See also R. Duval, 
op. cit., pp. 2 f . 

12 For illustrations of reed pens see J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, Tab. A, Figs. 1-6. 

13 On the pens used by Greek scribes see W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal Uncial 
Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), p. 13. 



IO 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



III 
INK 

The ink (k&cux) which Syrian scribes used for the text of their books 
is usually brown or black, and the black ink is sometimes glossy or shiny. 
When the copyists wished to rubricate or ornament their works, they em- 
ployed pigments of various colours, generally red or green and occasionally 
yellow or blue. 1 Gold ornamentation is rare. 

Since ink-making was an important part of the scribe's calling, it is not 
surprising that a number of recipes for preparing ink have been preserved 
in Syriac manuscripts. 2 In this way the art was handed down from genera- 
tion to generation. 

The usual ingredients of ink were nutgalls (gallnuts or gallapples), 
green vitriol (ferrous sulphate), gum arabic, and water. The nutgalls, which 
were rich in tannin, were pulverized; and the powder was boiled in water. 
This solution was then strained through a coarse cloth and heated again 
over the fire. When it was cool, pulverized gum arabic and powdered vitriol 
were added, and the liquid was heated again. Finally, it was put into a bottle 
and allowed to stand three days, when it was ready for use. The resulting 
ferrous compounds, nearly colourless at first, became oxidized when exposed 
to the air. The gum arabic, which was obtained from the acacia tree and 
was composed in part of a mucilaginous substance, prevented the coagulation 
of the extremely fine black precipitate gradually formed in the liquid by 
atmospheric oxidation, and gave body to the ink. The gum arabic also 
caused the black oxidation products, formed before and after writing, to 
adhere to the vellum or paper. From the green vitriol (ferrous sulphate) 
used in making it ink was sometimes called " water of vitriol " (Kldvui* k£s*) 

In the Nitrian desert vinegar and strong wine were sometimes poured 
over the pounded nutgalls, and the solution was allowed to stand three days. 

x Dr. Wright notes that "in Malkite manuscripts the rubric has frequently a 
darker tint (carmine or lake), whereas in the others it is lighter (vermilion). The 
use of gold as a means of decoration was likewise not unknown to them." See W. 
Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1870- 
1872), Part III, p. xxvi. 

2 See the following manuscripts in the British Museum: Add. MS. 14540 (No. 
DCXXVIII), fol. 5 v. (marg.); Add. MS. 14632 (No. DCXCV), fol. 2; Add. MS. 
14644 (No. DCCCCXXXVI), fol. 94; and Arundel Orient. MS. 53 (Rosen and 
Forshall, No. LXII), fol. 8 3 v. 



INK 



11 



Then it was strained and put into a vessel, and a little green vitriol (ferrous 
sulphate) was added. The ink was then ready for use. 

Parings from the root of a shrub known as arta (t^^v.^ — ^jl) 8 
were sometimes used in Nitria instead of nutgalls in the manufacture of 
ink. This shrub (Calligonum comosum L/Heritier) requires little water and 
grows in many arid regions. 4 The parings were pounded while fresh and 
boiled in black (i. e. dark red) wine or wine vinegar instead of water. 
Apparently the extraction of the tannin contained in them was promoted 
by the alcohol in the wine or the acetic acid in the vinegar. The solution 
was then strained, and a little green vitriol (ferrous sulphate) and gum 
arabic were added. When this had been done, the ink was ready for use. 
Tannin and vitriol ink in the course of time takes on the handsome rusty 
brown colour that is sometimes seen in early manuscripts. 

The Syrians, like the Egyptians and other ancient peoples, also made 
ink out of lampblack (r^n^ysui) mixed with oil or gum. The latter caused 
the carbon, of which the lampblack was composed, to adhere to the vellum 
or paper. Lampblack reflects only about two per cent, of the incident light, 
and hence ink made of it is extremely black. It does not fade; but it is 
likely to flake off with wear, and for this reason it is inferior to tannin inks. 5 



IV 
MODE OF WRITING 

Syriac, like other Semitic languages, was ordinarily written from right 
to left on a horizontal line. However, in inscriptions the letters were some- 
times incised from the top of the stone downwards in a vertical column. 1 

8 In the spelling of this word I have followed Dr. E. W. Lane's Arabic-English 
Lexicon (London, 1 863-1 893), Book I, p. 49. Dr. Wright gives it as U»jf. See 
W. Wright, of. cit 7 Part II, p. 580. 

4 See E. Boissier, Flora Orientalis (Geneva and Basel, 1879), IV, p. 1000; H. C. 
Hart, Some Account of the Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and Wddy 'Arabah 
(London, 1891), pp. 29, 33, 43, 108, and 139; G. E. Post, Flora of Syria, Palestine, 
and Sinai (Beirut, 1896), p. 696; and A. Trotter, Flora economica della Libia (Rome, 
I 9 I 5)» PP- 136 f. and Tavola 64. There is a specimen of a'rta in the Gray Herbarium 
of Harvard University. 

5 On the ink used by Greek scribes see W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal Uncial 
Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), pp. 15 f. 

1 This is made clear by two Syriac inscriptions. The earlier, which was found at 
Nimrud Dagh near Edessa, is dated 493 A. D. On this see E. Sachau in the Zeitschrift 



12 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



Whether this was the earliest method of writing in use among the Syrians 
is not known. It is also found in Palmyrene, which is closely related to 
Syriac. 2 

Probably both the Syrians and the Palmyrenes sometimes wrote verti- 
cally on vellum and papyrus. At any rate the Jacobites, who were highly 
skilled in the art of calligraphy, were accustomed to write the text of their 
manuscripts in a vertical column. They probably thought that by this device 
they could impart greater flexibility and more grace to their handwriting. 

The sheet of vellum or paper which was to receive the writing was 
turned through a right angle to the left. Then the letters were made one 
below another in a column, each one lying on its left side. When the page 
was completed, the vellum or paper was turned back to its original position, 
the column of letters automatically became a line, and the writing was read 
from right to left. The diacritical points were put at the left or right of the 
letters, so that when the sheet was turned back for reading the points were 
above or below the letters. Sometimes a line was drawn with a lead disk 
or a pointed instrument to aid the scribe in keeping the letters in alignment. 
The latter were then made just to the right of the line; and when the page 
was turned back to the reading position, the letters depended from the line. 

The Jacobites followed this custom until the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century, when they abandoned it and adopted the method of writing from 
right to left on a horizontal line. The Nestorians on the other hand probably 
always wrote horizontally from right to left. 3 

der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVI, pp. 1 59 f . The other was 
discovered among the ruins of Zebed, which was situated southeast of Aleppo on the 
northeast side of Jebel Shbet. It is written in Syriac, Greek, and Arabic; and it is 
dated in the year 512. On this see E. Sachau in Monatsherichte der Koniglich Preus- 
sischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1881, pp. 169 ft.; F. Praetorius in 
the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXV, pp. 530 f .; and 
E. Sachau in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVI, 
pp. 345 ff. 

2 A Palmyrene inscription, found at Palmyra and dating probably from the year 
142 after Christ, is written vertically. See J. Cantineau in Syria, XII, pp. 125 f. 
(No. 6 bis). 

8 On the subject discussed in this section see J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca 
(Leiden, 1 862-1 875), I, pp. 60 f.; the Abbe J. P. P. Martin in the Journal Asia- 
tique, Sixieme Serie, XIX, pp. 327 ff. and 439; W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac 
Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part III, p. xxvii; R. Duval, 
Traite de grammaire syriaque (Paris, 1881), p. 3; H. Jensen, Geschichte der Schrift 
(Hannover, 1925), p. 127; and J. Cantineau, Grammaire du palmyrenien epigraphique 
(Cairo, 1935), p. 31. 



COLUMNS 



*3 



COLUMNS 

The text in Syriac manuscripts is arranged sometimes in one column 
and sometimes in two or three. The short line and narrow column are 
survivals from the period in which literary works were written on papyrus 
or vellum rolls. Short lines and narrow columns were retained for some 
time after the codex was introduced; but eventually they gave way to the 
long line and wide column, which are more convenient for the reader. None 
of the manuscripts of which specimen pages are reproduced in the present 
volume have more than three columns on a page. Codex Vaticanus (B) and 
Codex Sinaiticus (h) of the fourth century, which contain the Old and 
New Testaments in Greek, have respectively three and four columns to 
the page. 1 

In the earliest dated Syriac manuscript, which was copied at Edessa in 
411 A. D., there are three columns on each page; 2 whereas all the other ex- 
amples of fifth century handwriting in the present collection have two 
columns to the page, 3 It is probably a mere accident that, so far as is known, 
no dated codex having a single column on each page has survived from this 
early period. 4 

In the sixth century the two-column page continued to be the favourite 
with most scribes, though some preferred the one-column and some the 
three-column page. The earliest dated manuscript which has the text in a 
single column was written at Mabbug in 510-51 1 A. D. 5 The one-column 
page soon became popular, and it never went out of style. On the other 
hand the three-column page, which probably never enjoyed great favour 
on account of the shortness of the lines, gradually lost ground and was 
finally driven from the field by its competitors. The latest example of the 
three-column page known to the present writer, with the sole exception 

1 See W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament 
(Chicago, 1939), Plates XIV, XV, and XVI. On columns in Greek codices see p. 17. 

2 See Plate I. r 

3 See Plates II, III, IV, V, and VI. 

*M. Duval says: "On trouve deja au V e siecle des manuscrits ecrits de cette 

maniere" (i.e. with one column). See R. Duval, Traite de grammaire syriaaue 
(Paris, 1881), p. 3. * /■ 1 

5 See Plate VIII. 




M 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



RULING 



of a fifteenth century Serta codex which has sometimes two and sometimes 
three columns on a page, 6 is an Estrangela manuscript which was copied 
in 604 A. D. 7 

From the seventh to the tenth century the one-column and the two- 
column page occur with almost equal frequency. Both have a certain prac- 
tical advantage over the three-column page, and both continued in use down 
to the end of the sixteenth century. The one-column and the two-column 
page are found in Estrangela, Serta, Nestorian, and Melkite codices. Mel- 
kite scribes, however, preferred a page with a single column. 8 On the other 
hand each of the three specimens of the Palestinian script has two columns 
to the page, but this is probably accidental. 

The number of columns on a page does not seem to have been de- 
termined either by the character of the contents of the manuscript or by 
the custom of the place in which the codex was copied, nor was the width 
of the page the decisive factor. The number of columns was a matter of 
choice on the part of the scribe, although local style doubtless exerted some 
influence on him. Having begun with a certain number of columns to the 
page, a scribe rarely changed to another number in the course of his work. 9 



VI 
RULING 

In order to aid the scribe in his work, most Syriac manuscripts are ruled 
cither with lead or with a sharp or blunt point. The upper and the side 
margins are usually indicated in this way, and sometimes the lower margin 
is marked off with a horizontal line near the bottom of the page. If there are 
two or three columns on a page, these are kept separate by means of vertical 
lines. In some cases the text is written on lines drawn horizontally across 
the page. The purpose and the result of ruling were to give a neat and 
uniform appearance to the pages of a codex. 

6 See Plate CL. 

7 See Plate XXXVIII. Dr. Wright says that three-column codices " are scarcely 
to be met with after the seventh century." See W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac 
Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part III, p. xxvii. 

8 Of the fourteen Melkite manuscripts contained in the present collection twelve 
have the one-column page, whereas only two have two columns to the page. 

9 Add. MSS. 12151 (No. DCXXV) and 21580 (No. DCCXXIII) in the British 
Museum are exceptions to this statement. See Plates LX and CL. 



15 



In most manuscripts of the fifth and sixth centuries the columns and 
upper margins only are ruled with lead, and this kind of ruling continued 
in use until about the middle of the thirteenth century. 1 It was the favourite 
style until the end of the ninth century, but thereafter its popularity waned. 2 
Sometimes the lower margin also is marked off with a line near the bottom 
of the page. This type of ruling appeared in the third quarter of the sixth 
century, and it was still used as late as the third quarter of the sixteenth 
century; 3 but it never had great vogue. Sometimes, too, only the columns are 
ruled with lead. Two manuscripts of the fifth century are ruled in this way, 4 
but this style was never popular. It seems to have enjoyed most favour in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries, 5 and thereafter it disappeared. Sometimes 
also the columns and the lines intended for the text are ruled with lead. This 
kind of ruling made its appearance in the first quarter of the eighth century; 
and it continued to reappear from time to time until about the middle of 
the thirteenth century, when it apparently went out of use. 6 It was at the 
height of its popularity at the end of the twelfth century and during the 
first half of the thirteenth. 7 

Thus far only codices ruled with lead have been considered. Lead 
ruling, which is found in most Syriac manuscripts and was probably pre- 
ferred by Syrian scribes, was made with a thin lead disk and a ruler. 8 It 

1 The latest example is dated 1242 A. D. See Plate CXXXVI. 

2 The present collection contains yy codices written before the end of the ninth 
century in which the columns and upper margins are ruled with lead. On the other 
hand there are only 14 manuscripts with this kind of ruling that were copied between 
the years 900 and 1242. 

3 See Plates XXIX (569 A. D.) and XCIV (1567-1568 A. D.). There are 21 
examples of this style in the present collection, of which the eleventh and fourteenth 
centuries furnish four each. See Plates LXXIX, CXXIII, CXXIV, CXCVIII, CXLI, 
CXLII, CXLIV, and CXLV. 

4 See Plates I (411 A. D.) and VI (474 A. D.). 

5 The latest example is dated 11 77 A. D. See Plate LXXXIII. Of the twelve 
codices in the present collection which have the columns only ruled with lead seven 
were written in the above-mentioned centuries. See Plates LXXVIII, CXVIII, CXXIII, 
LXXXI, LXXXII, CXXIX, and LXXXIII. 

6 See Plates CLXII (719-720 A. D.), XCII (1251 A. D.), and XCIII (1255 A. D.). 

7 The present collection contains twelve manuscripts which have the columns and 
lines ruled with lead. Of these ten were copied between the years 1191 and 1255. 
See Plates LXXXIV, LXXXVI, LXXXVIII, CLXIX, CLXXI, XC, CLXXII, XCI, 
XCII, and XCIII. 

8 The earliest dated Syriac codex, written in 411 A. D., has the columns ruled 
with lead. See Plate I. On the other hand lead ruling was introduced into Greece 



i6 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



was used both on vellum and on paper. Sometimes also the columns and 
lines were drawn with a blunt point, and more rarely a sharp point was 
employed. A blunt point indents the surface of the writing material, and a 
sharp point scratches it. 

Ruling with the latter instrument, which occurs only in vellum codices, 
first appeared about the middle of the eighth century; and it was used occa- 
sionally as late as the first quarter of the thirteenth. 9 This type of ruling 
was probably borrowed from the Greeks, among whom it was in vogue as 
early as the fourth century after Christ; 10 and it never gained much favour 
among the Syrians. On the other hand ruling with a blunt point was much 
commoner, and it is found in vellum as well as in paper manuscripts. The 
use of vellum or paper ruled with a blunt point began in the last quarter 
of the tenth century and continued until the end of the sixteenth. 11 This 
kind of ruling reached the height of its popularity in the thirteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 12 

Very rarely and only in vellum codices are the columns and lines ruled 
with ink. The use of ink for this purpose was apparently introduced about 
the middle of the tenth century, and it was still employed at least occasionally 
as late as the first quarter of the thirteenth. 13 

In some manuscripts, made of vellum as well as of paper, there is no 

at a much later date. According to Sir E. M. Thompson it was not used in Greek 
manuscripts until the eleventh century, and it did not come into general use until 
the following century. See Sir E. M. Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin 
Palaeography (Oxford, 191 2), p. 55. A thin lead disk and a ruler were employed for 
this purpose also by the Greeks. See V. Gardthausen, Griechische Palaeographie 
(second ed., Leipzig, 1911-1913), I, pp. 183 f.; and W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal 
Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), p. 14. 

9 Only five manuscripts in the present collection are ruled with a sharp point. 
See Plates LIII, LV, LXXIV, LXXXV, and LXXXIX. The earliest of these was copied 
in the year 740-741 and the latest in 1217-1218 A. D. The Greeks used the sharp 
point on paper as well as on vellum. 

10 The two earliest vellum manuscripts of the Bible, viz. Codex Vaticanus and 
Codex Sinaiticus, are ruled with a sharp point. See W. H. P. Hatch, op. tit., Plates 
XIV, XV, and XVI. Both were written in the fourth century. 

11 The earliest example is dated 979-980 A. D. (Plate LXXV) and the latest 1 595 
AD. (Plate CXCVII). 

12 There are 33 manuscripts in the present collection ruled with a blunt point, 
of which nine were copied in the thirteenth and eleven in the sixteenth century. 

13 The earliest examples are dated 956 A. D. (Plate LXXIV) and 979-980 A. D. 
(Plate LXXV), and the latest was written in 1217-1218 A. D. (Plate CLXX). These 
three codices are the only ones in the present collection that are ruled with ink. 



COLOPHON 



17 



ruling of any sort. The earliest codex with no ruling was written near the 
end of the ninth century, and the latest example was copied in the first 
quarter of the sixteenth. 14 This style was most popular in the fifteenth 
century. 15 



VII 
COLOPHON 

When the work of copying was completed, the scribe usually recorded 
certain facts concerning himself and his work in a colophon, which was 
generally put at the end of the manuscript. These facts are as a rule the 
following: the date; the name of the convent or city or village in which 
the codex was written; the person or persons for whom it was intended; 
and the name of the copyist with his ecclesiastical status and certain de- 
preciatory epithets, such as the sinner (^*\v), the wretched (K^oa), the 
weak (r£i*^=>), the needy (wxni-fia), the miserable (r^i^QQ^a), etc. Occa- 
sionally the scribe indicated his name by means of fully written numerals, 
each numeral representing a letter of the name; and sometimes he used 
Syriac arithmetical figures. 1 Again, he sometimes employed the so-called 
alphabet of Bardesanes, which was a kind of cipher or cryptic writing. 2 

Sometimes the scribe recorded the name of his father and grandfather, 
as well as that of the village or city from which he came. If he was a monk, 
he usually inserted the name of the abbot of the convent in which he lived; 
and he also mentioned one or more of the bishops, metropolitans, or pa- 

14 See Plates CLXV (894 A. D.) and CLIV (1521 A. D.). 

15 The present collection contains 25 manuscripts with no ruling, and of these 
nine were copied in the fifteenth century. 

1 Sometimes the scribe's name is expressed by means of fully written numerals 
and Syriac arithmetical figures, e. g. r^f^i^AiA^ r^vmi*. r^^air^ ^\b\ «»v nx 
^oia 3^ = 7000 U.l£l 7 ft* l* 7000 ^a^x rdiix. See W. Wright, 
Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1870-1872), 
Part II, p. 754 (No. DCCLXXVIII). For the Syriac arithmetical figures see R. Duval, 
Traite de grammaire syriaaue (Paris, 1881), p. xv. For another means of indicating 
the scribe's name see the description facing Plate CXLIV, note 4. 

2 E.g. ^\xs^\, i.e. a^o^. See W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, p. 14 (No. 



^AXX^A, 



XXII). On the alphabet of Bardesanes, which was known as 



*n"\n:i rd&o&rd 



or r^Aua^n &Ar£, see A. Merx, Bardesanes von Edessa (Halle, 1863), p. 61, note 1; 

B. H. Cowper in The Journal of Sacred Literature, New Series, VI, pp. 465 f.; 
J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1862-1875), II, pp. 13 f.; and R. Duval, 
op. cit., pp. 12 f. 



i8 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



triarchs who were holding office at the time. So, too, the name and eccle- 
siastical rank of the owner of the codex were sometimes noted in the colophon. 
Occasionally also the price paid for the manuscript was stated, or the fact 
that it was bought or bound by a certain person. In the case of works which 
were translated from Greek into Syriac the name of the translator and the 
date of translation were sometimes given. At the end of the colophon the 
copyist usually added a request that the reader of the book pray for him. 



VIII 
DATING 

Syriac manuscripts are usually dated according to the Seleucid era, which 
began on October i, 312 B.C. Seleucus I, the founder of the Seleucid 
dynasty, succeeded to the power of Alexander the Great in Syria; and hence 
the era was known as that of the Greeks or of Alexander. It was generally 
considered sufficient to mention the year of the Greeks (An. Graecomm) 
in the colophon, but sometimes the scribe also gave the date according to 
some other method of reckoning time. The Seleucid era was also occa- 
sionally called the era of Apamea after the city of Apamea, which was 
situated in the valley of the Orontes. 1 In the time of Seleucus I Apamea was 
the military headquarters of Syria and one of the four leading cities of the 
country. 

In the fifth and sixth centuries local eras, e. g. those of Antioch 2 and 
Bostra 3 were sometimes used in the dating of codices. The former of 
these eras began on October 1, 49 B.C., 4 and the latter on March 22, 
105 A. D. 5 

The influence of Persia was felt in Syria even before the country was 
invaded and ravaged by Chosroes II, who reigned from 590 to 628 A. D.; 
and that influence is sometimes reflected in the dating of manuscripts. Thus 
there are two codices in the present collection which are dated in certain 
years of that monarch's reign. 6 One of them was copied in Babylonia and 

1 See Plate X. 

2 See Plates V and XXIX. 

3 See Plate XV. 

4 See F. K. Ginzel, Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie 
(Leipzig, 1906-1914), III, pp. 43 ff. 

* See F. K. Ginzel, op. cit, III, pp. 34 and 49. 6 See Plates CLX and CLXI. 



DATING 



19 



the other in Mesopotamia, and they are both the work of Nestorian scribes. 
However, most of the manuscripts written in this period are dated according 
to the Seleucid era. 

After the Arab conquest of Syria in the fourth decade of the seventh 
century and the establishment of Islam in that country it was not unusual 
to date codices according to the Mohammedan era, which began on July 1 6, 
622 A. D. 7 The year of the Hijrah (An. Hegirae) is sometimes given alone 
and sometimes along with the Seleucid date. 

In Syriac manuscripts, as in Greek codices, the date is sometimes com- 
puted according to the Mundane era of Constantinople, i. e. from the sup- 
posed date of the creation of the world; and the year is called the year of 
Adam (An. Adae). s This method of dating was often employed by the 
Melkites, who were theologically in agreement with the Byzantine Church 
and were under the influence of Constantinople in various ways. The 
Mundane era began on September 1, 5509 B. C. 9 In some cases both sys- 
tems, the Seleucid and the Mundane, were used. Occasionally also the 
colophon records the year of the indiction, the latter being a cycle of fifteen 
years reckoned from September 1 , 3 1 2 A. D. No example of this, however, 
is included in the present work. 

Finally, Syriac manuscripts are sometimes dated according to the Chris- 
tian era. 10 In some cases the corresponding year of the Seleucid era is also 
given, but in others only the year of the Christian era (An. Domini) is 
mentioned. The custom of dating events from the supposed year of the birth 
of Christ was introduced by Hippolytus of Rome, whose system was followed 
by Cyril of Scythopolis and some later Palestinian writers. 11 It was made 
popular in the West by a learned Roman monk named Dionysius Exiguus, 
who flourished in the sixth century; and in the course of time this method 
became established throughout Western Europe. Sometimes the date of a 
codex is given according to two or even three of the above-mentioned sys- 
tems, and occasionally these dates do not agree. 12 

7 See e. g. Plates XLIII, LVI, LVII, LXX, XCVIII, and CLXV. 

8 See e. g. Plates CLXXXV, CXCI, CXCII, CXCIV, CXCVI, CXCIX, and CC. 

9 See V. Gardthausen, Griechische Palaeographie (second ed., Leipzig, 1911-1913), 
II, pp. 448 ff. 

10 See Plates LXXXVI, CLIV, CLV, and CXCI. 

11 See R. P. Blake, Po povodu daty armyanskago perevoda " Tserkovnoi Istorii " 
Sokrata Skholastika (Russian) in Khristianskii Vostok, 5, pp. 175 ff. (especially pp. 

175-179). 

12 See Plates CLV, CLXXXV, and CXCI. 



20 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



MINIATURES 



21 



Syrian scribes often indicated roughly the date of manuscripts by 
naming the patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, and abbots who were holding 
office at the time. 13 Moreover, in most cases the colophon records not only 
the year in which the codex was completed, but also the month and very 
often the day of the month. Sometimes the day of the week and even the 
hour of the day are given. 14 



IX 

MINIATURES 

Syriac manuscripts are sometimes adorned with miniatures, but codices 
so embellished are comparatively rare. Some Syrian pictures have much 
artistic merit, but in general Syrian artists shew less genius and skill than 
Greek and Persian painters. They were not gifted with great originality, 
and their works often betray the influence of Greek models. The art of 
miniature painting was much less practised and probably less highly es- 
teemed in Syriac-speaking circles than it was in Greece and Persia, and it 
never attained such a high degree of excellence among the Syrians. 

The earliest Syrian miniatures, so far as is known, are those contained 
in a copy of the Four Gospels according to the Peshitta version which was 
written at Beth-Zagba in Mesopotamia in 586 A. D. 1 The scribe's name 
was Rabbula, and the work is often called the Rabbula Gospels. It has 
been thought that the pictures were painted as late as the tenth or eleventh 

13 See Plates LXIII, XCV, CV, and CXVIII. 

14 See e.g. British Museum, Add. MS. 14621 (No. DCCLXXIX), fol. i 7 iv. See 
W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 
1 870-1 872), Part II, p. 758. See also Plate LIX in the present work. For a Greek 
codex in which the month, the day of the month, the day of the week, the hour of 
the day, the year, and the indiction are given see W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal 
Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), Plate LXIX. 

^ * Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Plut. I, Cod. 56. For engravings of these 
miniatures see S. E. Assemani, Bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae et Palatinae Codi- 
cum Manuscriptorum Orientalium Catalogus (Florence, 1742), Tabb. I-XXVI (fol- 
lowing p. 49). For reproductions of three of the pictures see G. Biagi, Reproductions 
de manuscrits enlumines (Florence, 1914), Planches I-III. See also Ch. Diehl, L'art 
chretien primitif et l'art hyzantin (Paris and Brussels, 1928), Plate XXVII; A. M. 
Friend, Jr., ' The Portraits of the Evangelists in Greek and Latin Manuscripts/ Part II, 
in Art Studies, 1929, Plates I-IV; and C. Nordenfalk, Die spatantiken Kanontafeln 
(Goteborg, 1938), Tafelband, Taf. 129-148. For a facsimile of the text see Plate 
XXXIV. 



century and inserted in the manuscript; 2 but the style of the miniatures 
seems to indicate that they are nearly, if not quite, contemporary with the 
handwriting of the codex. 3 

In a copy of the Four Gospels according to the Harclean version which 
is dated in the year 756 there is a small picture of Luke. 4 The evangelist 
is standing; and in his right hand he is holding a book, which is doubtless 
his Gospel. This is the only miniature in the manuscript. 

The present writer has recently seen a copy of the Four Gospels accord- 
ing to the Peshitta version which contains some rather crude and somewhat 
damaged pictures of the four evangelists. 5 The codex was copied in the 
latter part of the twelfth century or in the early part of the thirteenth, and 
the miniatures were painted at the same time. The figures are standing, 
and each of them is making the sign of benediction with his right hand 
and holding a book in his left. John is represented as a young man without 
a beard. 6 

2 See E. Blochet, Les peintures des manuscrits orientaux de la Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale (Paris, 1914-1920), p. 52, note 3; Les enluminures des manuscrits orientaux 
(Paris, 1926), p. 52; and J. Ebersolt, La miniature hyzantine (Paris and Brussels, 
1926), p. 81. 

3 See W. H. P. Hatch, Greek and Syrian Miniatures in Jerusalem (Cambridge, 
Mass., 1 931), p. 17. 

4 Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Plut. I, Cod. 40. For a facsimile of the text 
see Plate LIV. 

5 Newton Center, Massachusetts, Library of the Andover Newton Theological 
School, MS. ZE 607-1200. The codex is owned by the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions and is deposited in the Andover Newton Theological 
Library. It has not been examined critically or described. 

6 In the Rabbula Gospels of the sixth century John is represented as a beardless 
young man sitting in a chair and holding a scroll in his hands. See A. M. Friend, Jr., 
op. cit., Part II, in Art Studies, 1929, Plate I. Professor Friend has suggested to me 
that the types of the evangelists' portraits have been mixed, and that John in the 
Rabbula manuscript was originally Luke. In Greek codices on the other hand John is 
portrayed as an old man with a beard when he appears as the author of the Gospel 
which bears his name. See e. g. A. M. Friend, Jr., op. cit., in Art Studies, 1927, Plates 
I, VI-XI, XIII, XIV, XVI, and XVIII; W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit., Plates XXII, XXVII, 
XXXI, XXXV, XLIV, XLVIII, LII, and LV; and H. R. Willoughby, ' Codex 2400 
and its Miniatures/ in Art Bulletin, XV, 1, Figs. 8, 9, 20, 60, and 61. However, in 
depicting events in the life of Christ Byzantine artists represented John as a beardless 
young man. See e. g. J. Ebersolt, op. cit., Plate LXI; H. Gerstinger, Die griechische 
Buchmalerei (Vienna, 1926), Plate XV, c; H. Omont, Miniatures des plus anciens 
manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotheque Nationale du VI e au XIV e siecle (Paris, 1929), 
Plates XXI, 1 and 2; and XXX, 1; and H. R. Willoughby, op. cit., Figs. 31, 42, 52, 
and 66. 




22 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



There are some noteworthy pictures in a Jacobite lectionary of the 
Gospels which is now in Jerusalem. 7 The manuscript was written in Edessa 
in 1222 A. D., and the miniatures are contemporary with the text. They 
depict the Transfiguration, the Last Supper, the Crucifixion, the Ascension, 
the Harrowing of Hell, and Pentecost. Each of these scenes occupies a 
whole page. In a smaller picture at the bottom of a page Mary Magdalene, 
the other Mary, and an angel are portrayed at the sepulchre of Christ. 

Finally, one leaf of a codex containing a portrait of Luke is preserved 
in the Morgan Library in New York. 8 It was bought by Mr. J. P. Morgan, 
Sr., in Damascus. The first ten verses of the Gospel of Luke according to 
the Peshitta version are written on the reverse side of the leaf in an Es-, 
trangela hand of the thirteenth century. The evangelist is standing and 
holding his Gospel with his left arm. The face has been partly deleted 
by rubbing. 

Besides those which are mentioned above certain other Syriac manu- 
scripts are embellished with miniatures. 9 They range in date from the 
eighth or ninth century 10 to the sixteenth, 11 and they vary greatly in style 



ana workmansr 



up. 



X 



QUIRES 

Nearly all ancient and mediaeval codices, like modern books, are com- 
posed of a number of quires or gatherings. The earliest codices, however, 
probably consisted of a single quire; and those of this type which have 

7 Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark, Cod. 28. For reproductions 
of these miniatures see W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit. y Plates LXIV-LXXI. For a facsimile 
of the text see Plate XC. 

8 New York, Morgan Library, MS. 774. 

9 London, British Museum, Add. MSS. 7165 (Rosen and Forshall, No. XXI), 
7169 (Rosen and Forshall, No. XXV), 7170 (Rosen and Forshall, No. XXVI), and 
Orient. MS. 3372 (Margoliouth, p. 16); Oxford, Bodleian Library, Dawkins MS. 58 
and MS. Bodl. Or. 625; Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Codd. Syrr. 30, 33, 41, and 
344; Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Syr. 28 (Sachau 220) and Cod. Syr. 
14 (Sachau 304); and Wolfenbiittel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Cod. 3. 1. 300. 

10 Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Syr. 28 (Sachau 220). 

11 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Bodl. Or. 625. 

12 The Department of Art and Archaeology of Princeton University owns photo- 
graphs of many Syrian miniatures. This unparalleled collection of material is in- 
valuable for the study of Syrian miniature painting. 



QUIRES 



23 



survived are either Greek or Coptic. 1 So far as is known, no one-quire book 
containing a Syriac text is extant. Most of these single-quire codices are 
papyrus, the rest being vellum; but, as was said above, 2 no Syriac manu- 
script made of papyrus has been preserved. One-quire books, however, were 
not entirely satisfactory, because they did not open evenly at all places and 
tended to fly open in the middle when not in use. 

Some ancient books were constructed by fastening together a number 
of two-leaf quires side by side, but no Syriac manuscript of this type is 
extant. In the course of time, however, both the single-quire codex and 
that composed of two-leaf quires gave way to the multiple-quire book, 3 
which had some obvious advantages over the other types. By means of the 
multiple-quire format it was possible to bind many leaves together in one 
book neatly and strongly. 

In making a multiple-quire codex each sheet of vellum or paper, as 
the case might be, was folded once in the middle, forming two leaves of 
equal size. Then four or five of these folded sheets were laid one upon 
another to make a quire (cd_aaia^). Thus the number of leaves in a quire 
was double the number of sheets. All existing Syriac manuscripts are 
multiple-quire codices. 

The quires were generally numbered with Syriac letters; but sometimes 
Syriac arithmetical figures or letters of the Greek, Coptic, or Arabic alpha- 
bets were employed for the purpose. 4 The numeral was sometimes put at 
the end of the quire, and sometimes it was given both at the beginning and 
at the end. It was normally placed at the bottom of the page. Occasionally, 
however, Syriac letters were used at the bottom of the page and Greek letters 
at the top, and the running title was sometimes written at the top of the 
first and last pages of the quire. These devices were intended to aid the 
binder when he combined the quires to form a codex (<<***>£). A single 

1 For several one-quire hooks see Sir H. Thompson, The Gospel of St John 
according to the Earliest Coptic Manuscript (London, 1924), pp. xi f.; and W. H. P. 
Hatch, The Principal Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), 
p. 18, note 1. 

2 See supra, p. 3. 

8 One-quire codices were made at least occasionally as late as the eighth century. 
See Sir F. G. Kenyon and H. I. Bell, Greek Papyri in the British Museum (London, 
1893-1917), IV, p. 177 (No. 1419). 

4 According to Dr. Wright Syriac arithmetical figures were not in general use 
after the ninth century. See W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the 
British Museum (London, 1870-1872), Part III, p. xxvi. 



24 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



leaf was called a <^; and the two opposite pages of a book, when the 
latter was open, were known as an opening (t^jjAta) . 6 



XI 
STYLES OF WRITING 

Syriac is an important member of the North Semitic group of languages, 
and linguistically it is nearly related to Aramaic and Palmyrene. Several 
different styles of writing were used by Syrian scribes. The oldest of these, 
which was employed for the writing of manuscripts as early as the first 
quarter of the fifth century after Christ, is closely akin to a cursive script 
found in certain Palmyrene inscriptions of the second and third centuries 
of the Christian era. 1 It is known as Estrangela (r£A^ai\c&rd) , 2 and it 
is the most beautiful of all Syriac hands. 

Letters engraved on stone or any other hard substance are in some 
respects different in appearance from those which are written on papyrus, 
vellum, or paper. The former are stiffer and more angular, whereas letters 
made with a pen on a smooth surface are more rounded and flexible. It is 
easier to make a curved stroke with a pen than with a chisel. In comparing 

5 On the quires in Syriac manuscripts see W. Wright, op. c tt*> P art III, p. xxvi. 
On the quires in Greek codices see W. H. P. Hatch, op. cit., pp. 18 f. 

1 See Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum (Paris, 1881-), Pars II, Tomus III, Fasc. 
1, Nos. 3902, 3906, 3908, 3909, 4046, 4049, 4072, 4176, 4207, and 4227. These 
inscriptions range in date from the middle of the second century to the third quarter 
of the third century after Christ. Commenting on the script used in them the Abbe* 
J. B. Chabot says on page 1 : " Eodem tempore (i. e. about the middle of the third 
century) in usu erat vulgaris scriptura cursiva, minus elegans, rudioris adspectus: 
litterae quaedam antiquiorem formam quadratam fidelius retinent, quaedam magis 
deformatae ad speciem syriacae scrip turae jam vergunt. Hanc scrip turam vulgarem 
unam invenimus in dissitis regionibus (cf. n os 3901-391 1), et non raro Palmyrae in 
privatis titulis (ex. gr. sub n is 4046, 4049, 4072). Demum, a scriptura syriaca vix aut 
ne vix quidem recedit species litterarum palmyrenarum quas currente calamo vel 
penicillo depingebant. Hujus scripturae specimina pauca, parietibus monumentorum 
exarata, ad nos pervenerunt (vide sub n is 4176, 4207, 4227). Fuit igitur fere eadem 
scriptura Palmyrenorum ac Syrorum." See also J. Cantineau in Syria, XIV, pp. 194 ff. 

2 Dr. Michaelis explains Estrangela as meaning Gospel character (rOyiflo 
f^Ai^iOr^). See J. D. Michaelis, Grammatica Syriaca (Halle, 1784), p. 15. On 
the other hand Assemani derives the word from the Greek orpoyyuAos, round. 
See J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 171 9-1 728), III, Pars II, 
p. CCCLXXVIII. 



STYLES OF WRITING 



^5 



the handwriting of a manuscript and the lettering of an inscription the 
difference between letters incised on stone with a chisel and those written 
with a pen on any of the above-mentioned writing materials must be con- 
stantly kept in mind. The former belong to the field of epigraphy, whereas 
the latter are the subject-matter of palaeography. 

When this difference is taken into account, the kinship existing between 
the cursive script of the Palmyrene inscriptions mentioned above and the 
hand found in Syriac codices of the fifth century is unmistakable. This 
kinship is especially clear in the case of the following letters: <^ =* ^ * ° 
4) * li » 1 ^. i and & . It is evident that Estrangela handwriting 
is derived from a cursive script similar to that which has been preserved 
in certain Palmyrene inscriptions. 3 

The earliest known examples of Estrangela letters are found on certain 
coins struck at Edessa in the first century after Christ. 4 The letters on these 
coins are ruder and more primitive than those used in the oldest Estrangela 
manuscripts, but they are nevertheless strikingly similar to the latter. In 
some cases the letters on the coins are separate, and in others they are joined 
together. Thus the Estrangela script was in use at least four centuries before 
the most ancient extant codices were copied. The Estrangela hand was 
doubtless used also for literary purposes before the fifth century of the 
Christian era. This fact accounts for the skill and grace displayed by the 
scribes who wrote the earliest extant manuscripts. 

The oldest dated Estrangela codex, which contains various patristic 
works, was written at Edessa in 41 1 A. D. 5 The script is clear and regular, 
the lines are straight, the letters are well formed, and many of them are 
connected. The scribe, whose name was Jacob, was no novice; and the 

3 For tables giving the Palmyrene cursive and the Estrangela script in parallel 
columns see H. Jensen, Geschichte der Schrift (Hannover, 1925), p. 125, Abb. 172; 
and J. Cantineau, Grammaire du palmyrenien epigraphique (Cairo, 1935), p. 34. 
On the evolution of the Palmyrene cursive script and its relation to the Estrangela 
hand see M. Lidzbarski, Handbuch der nordsemitischen Epigraphik (Weimar, 1898), 
pp. 192 ff.; and J. Cantineau, op. cit., pp. 31 ff. Some of the letters found in the 
Nash Papyrus, e. g. era and cS, are very similar to Estrangela characters; and there 
can be no doubt that the two scripts are related. They are doubtless both descended 
from common Palmyrene ancestors. The Nash Papyrus, which contains the Decalogue 
and the Shema* in Hebrew, was written in Egypt probably in the Maccabean period. 
See W. F. Albright in the journal of Biblical Literature, LVI, Part III, pp. 145 ff. 

4 See W. H. Scott in The Numismatic Chronicle, XVIII, pp. 1 ff.; and J. P. N. 
Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1 862-1 875), I, Tab. B, Figs. 2-10. 

6 See Plate I. 






26 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



STYLES OF WRITING 



27 



copying of texts was no novelty at Edessa in the early part of the fifth 
century. 

Dated manuscripts of the sixth century are much more numerous than 
those of the fifth, and the seventh century is also better represented than 
the fifth. The hands of the sixth and seventh centuries are more fully 
developed and more regular than those of the fifth, and some of the scribes 
of this period were masters of the art of calligraphy. 6 Moreover, in the 
sixth century a minuscule hand, more rapidly and less carefully written, 
was used in letters, accounts, notes, etc. 7 

For the text of codices the Estrangela style of writing apparently had 
no rival in Syria and Mesopotamia until the first half of the eighth century, 
when the Serta script seems to have made its appearance as a book-hand. 8 
However, the older style of writing by no means went out of fashion; but 
in this and the following centuries a certain deterioration is manifest in 
Estrangela texts. The letters are often small and less carefully formed, and 
the writing is more compact. The strokes of the letters are often heavier 
than they were in earlier times. 9 Nevertheless, many beautiful specimens 
of Estrangela handwriting have survived from this period. 10 

Towards the end of the tenth century John, Bishop of Qartamin, 
restored the Estrangela script in Tur-'Abdin, where, according to Bar 
Hebraeus, it had been defunct for a hundred years. 11 Ancient manuscripts 
were taken as models by the scribes, and a renaissance in the art of writing 
ensued. Probably many of the well written codices of the late tenth, as 
well as of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, were produced under the 
influence of this revival. 

During the thirteenth century the Estrangela hand continued to flourish, 
but after making a diligent search the present writer has not been able to 
find an example of a dated Estrangela manuscript which was copied in the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century. Probably few were produced. Nevertheless, 

6 See Plates VII-XLVI. 

7 See J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, p. 71; and Tab. V, Spec. 11. 

8 See Plate XCV. 

9 See e. g. Plates LI, LIII, LVT, LVII, LXIV, LXXI, LXXII, LXXIV, and LXXV. 

10 See e. g. Plates XLVII, XLVIII, LIX, LX, LXVII, LXIX, and LXXVI. 

11 See J. S. Assemani, op. cit., II, p. 352; and the Abbe J. P. P. Martin in the Journal 
Asiatique, Sixieme Serie, XIV, pp. 329 f. and 344. Dr. Land thinks that Add. MS. 
1 21 39 (No. CCXXIV) in the British Museum is a good representative of John's 
reform. See J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, p. 81. 






this style of writing cannot have died out completely; for at least one speci- 
men of it, which came from Tur-'Abdin and is dated in the year 1 567-1 568, 
has been preserved. 12 This codex is a good representative of late Estrangela 
handwriting. The present writer has seen a Jacobite monk in Jerusalem 
write Estrangela letters with a skill and fluency which indicated much 
practice. 

The Serta script, which is also called Jacobite from the name of the 
sect which used it, 13 is more cursive and less angular than the Estrangela. 
It is akin to the latter; but it was derived directly from the minuscule hand 
mentioned above, which, as we have seen, was employed for ordinary pur- 
poses as early as the sixth century. 14 Similarly the minuscule script found 
in Greek manuscripts of the ninth and following centuries was evolved 
from the hand used in non-literary papyri of the Byzantine period. 15 The 
Syriac writing just mentioned was called r£dO^*x& rd2^i*>, i. e. the simple, 
or better the common or current, script. Probably the terms Serta and 
Estrangela for the two rival styles of writing originated in this period. 

The earliest dated Serta codex, so far as is known, was written in 731- 
732 A. D. 16 It contains the Gospel of St. John according to the Harclean 
version and the Masorah on the Fourth Gospel. Unfortunately, however, the 
name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was copied 
are not given. The hand is strong and clear, the letters are well made and 
regular, and the scribe shews much skill in the use of his pen. 

From the eighth century onward the newer style of writing grew in 
favour. It could be written rapidly; and, as it w T as developed by Jacobite 
calligraphers, it became a beautiful script. Hence it was able to maintain 
itself as a book-hand alongside of the more ancient Estrangela style. It was 
much used for the copying of codices down to the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and many clear and well written specimens of the Serta script have 
been preserved. 17 

12 See Plate XCIV. 

13 The Jacobites call themselves Syrian Orthodox in contradistinction to the Nes- 
torians, whom they regard as heretics. 

14 See J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, pp. 73 f. Dr. Land attributes the origin of the 
Sert& script to Jacob of Edessa, an eminent Monophysite scholar and theologian, who 
flourished in the second half of the seventh century. 

15 See Sir F. G. Kenyon, The Palaeography of Greek Papyri (Oxford, 1899), 
pp. 51 f. and 123 ff. 

16 See Plate XCV 

17 See e. g. Plates XCVII, CV, CXIII, CXXII, CXXIX, CXXXIX, CLIII, and 
CLVI. 



28 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



After the Council of Ephesus, which was held in 431 A. D., the Syrian 
Christians who accepted the doctrine of Nestorius concerning the person 
of Christ withdrew from their fellow believers and formed a separate eccle- 
siastical organization. The schism was complete, and the Nestorians became 
a distinct community. They had their own scholars, theologians, and writers, 
as well as their own literature; and it is not at all surprising that under such 
conditions they should also have developed a distinctive style of writing. 

Nestorian manuscripts are much rarer than Estrangela and Serta codices. 
The earliest dated specimen of this type, so far as is known, is a copy of 
the Four Gospels according to the Peshitta version, which was written in 
the district of Beth-Nuhadra in 599-600 A. D. 18 Dr. Wright calls the hand- 
writing " a small and beautiful Nestorian Estrangela/' 19 In its general char- 
acter the script is not unlike that found in some Estrangela manuscripts of 
the same period. Nestorian vowels are sparingly used. They are much more 
numerous in a text which was copied in the third quarter of the eighth 
century. 20 

So far as one is able to judge from the material which is still extant, 
Nestorian scribes followed the Estrangela tradition until the middle of the 
thirteenth century. Until this time their handwriting was of the Estranged 
type. About the middle of the thirteenth century, however, cursive forms 
seem to have made their appearance. 21 This newer Nestorian style of writing, 
which resembles the Serta script in some respects, became popular and never 
went out of fashion. Nevertheless, the older Estrangela hand was still used 
at times, 22 and its influence can be clearly seen in some Nestorian codices 
which were written towards the end of the sixteenth century. 23 

The Syriac-speaking Christians who accepted the doctrine of the person 
of Christ formulated at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 A. D. were known 
as Melkites. They were orthodox from the point of view of the Greeks, 
whereas both the Nestorians and the Jacobites were heretical when judged 
by the Chalcedonian standard. Since the Melkites were separated doc- 
trinally and ecclesiastically from each of the other branches of Syrian 
Christianity, it is not strange that they developed their own style of writing. 
This was evolved out of the Serta script, and in general it resembles the 

18 See Plate CLX. 

19 See W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum 
(London, 1 870-1 872), Part I, p. 52. 

20 See Plate CLXIII. 22 See Plate CLXXIX. 

21 See Plate CLXXIII. 23 See Plates CLXXXII and CLXXXIII. 



STYLES OF WRITING 



29 



latter. However, in some respects it is like the Estrangela and Nestorian 
styles of writing. 

Melkite manuscripts are not very numerous. The present writer has 
found only fourteen dated specimens which were copied before the end of 
the sixteenth century. The oldest of these was written in the Convent or 
Laura of Mar Elias on the Black Mountain near Antioch in 1045 A. D. 
It contains a lectionary of the Gospels, a calendar of saints' days for the year, 
and select lessons for particular occasions. 24 Melkite codices of the thirteenth 
century are for the most part clear and well written. 25 Unfortunately, so 
far as is known, no dated Melkite manuscripts of the fourteenth century are 
extant. About the middle of the fifteenth century the hand suffered a 
decline, which continued until the end of that century; 26 but in the second 
half of the sixteenth century the Melkite script was again clear and regular. 27 

The Melkites of Palestine had their own version of the Scriptures and 
their own liturgy; and they used a script which is known as Palestinian, 
or Old Palestinian, or Syro-Palestinian. It is stiff and angular, and its affinity 
with the Estrangela style of writing is obvious. Indeed, Dr. Wright goes 
so far as to say: " The peculiar Palestinian character is, in its early days, 
little else than a very stiff, angular, inelegant Estrangela." 28 It is, however, 
more archaic in appearance than the latter; and there is a striking similarity 
between certain letters of the Palestinian alphabet and the same letters in 
the cursive script which is found in some Palmyrene inscriptions. 29 In view 

24 See Plate CLXXXIV. 26 See Plates CXCII-CXCV. 

25 See Plates CLXXXV-CXC. 27 See Plates CXCVI and CXCVII. 

28 See W. Wright, op. cit. y Part III, p. xxxii. Dr. Noldeke also says: "Die in den 
christlich-palastinischen Werken gebrauchliche Schrift ist direct aus dem Estranged 
gebildet." See Th. Noldeke in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell- 
schaft, XXII, p. 445. According to Dr. Land the Palestinian script was derived from 
the Estrangela hand of the Edessene scribes and the uncial handwriting of the Greeks. 
See J. P. N. Land, op. cit., I, p. 90; and IV, pp. 212 f. and 232. In view of the facts 
mentioned below this theory seems to the present writer entirely unsound. See also 
Th. Noldeke in op. cit. y XXII, pp. 446 f.; and R. Duval, Traite de grammaire syriaque 
(Paris, 1 881), pp. gi. 

29 See Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum (Paris, 1881-), Pars II, Tomus III, 
Fasc. 1, Nos. 3902, 3906, 3908, 3909, 4046, 4049, 4072, 4176, 4207, and 4227. For 
a table shewing the Palmyrene cursive and Palestinian alphabets in parallel columns 
see H. Jensen, op. cit. y p. 125, Abb. 172. The kinship of these two scripts is clear 
in the case of the following letters: r^ :a i^ rt (sometimes without a point in 
Palestinian, as always in the Palmyrene cursive) -w ^i Sk and \ (nearly always 
with a point in Palestinian, as often in the Palmyrene cursive). 






3° 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 



3i 



of this fact it is altogether probable that the Palestinian hand, like the 
Estrangela, was derived from a cursive script similar to that which is used 
in these Palmyrene inscriptions. Thus both the Palestinian and Estrangela 
styles of writing are descended from a common Aramaic ancestor. 

The oldest dated Palestinian codex is the well-known Palestinian lec- 
tionary of the Gospels, which was copied at Antioch in 1030 A. D. 30 Two 
other dated manuscripts containing this same lectionary are at Mount Sinai, 
and they were both written in the first quarter of the twelfth century. 31 
There are also some other examples of the Palestinian script extant. 32 They 
are not dated, and many of them are palimpsests. 



XII 
OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 

It is sometimes difficult to draw a hard and fast line between the 
Estrangela and Serta scripts, because sometimes in the same manuscript 
some letters have the Estrangela form and others are of the Serta style. 
Codices which have both kinds of letters are borderland types. Some Nes- 
torian manuscripts are written in Estrangela characters and others in Serta 
letters, so that it is possible to speak of Nestorian Estrangela and Nestorian 

30 See Plate CXCVIII. 

31 See Plates CXCIX and CC. For this lectionary see A. S. Lewis and M. D. 
Gibson, The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (London, 1899). 

32 See C. Tischendorf, Notitia Editionis Codicis Bibliorum Sinaitici (Leipzig, 
i860), p. 49; Anecdota Sacra et Prof ana (ed. repetita, Leipzig, 1861), p. 13; J. 
P. N. Land, of. cit., IV, pp. 181 ff.; A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, A Palestinian 
Syriac Lectionary (Studia Sinaitica, No. VI, London, 1897); Palestinian Syriac 
Texts from Palimpsest Fragments in the T aylor-Schechter Collection (London, 1900); 
F. Schulthess in Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 
zu Gottingen, Phil.-hist. Klasse, Neue Folge, VIII, No. 3; H. Duensing, Christlich- 
paldstinisch-aramaische Texte und Fragmente (Gottingen, 1906); and A. S. Lewis, 
Codex Climaci Rescriptus (Horae Semiticae, No. VIII, Cambridge, 1909). For photo- 
graphic reproductions of specimen pages see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, Plates 
XVIII-XX; J. P. N. Land, op. cit., IV, Tabb. I-VIII; A. S. Lewis, Catalogue of the 
Syriac MSS. in the Convent of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai (Studia Sinaitica, 
No. I, London, 1894), Plate VI; A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, A Palestinian Syriac 
Lectionary, ad init.; Palestinian Syriac Texts from Palimpsest Fragments in the 
T aylor-Schechter Collection, ad fin.; F. Schulthess in op. cit., Neue Folge, VIII, 
No. 3, ad fin.; H. Duensing, op. cit., ad fin.; and A. S. Lewis, Codex Climaci 
Rescriptus, ad fin. 



Serta writing. Melkite codices follow the Serta pattern. Although the 
Palestinian script is a distinct style of writing, nevertheless it has certain 
affinities with the Estrangela hand. 

Some letters underwent more change than others in the course of cen- 
turies, and hence they have greater significance for the dating of manu- 
scripts. Something must now be said concerning the letters which are more 
significant from this point of view. 



The Estrangela form of rd was characteristic of the Estrangela script 
from the earliest times down to the latter half of the sixteenth century, when 
the Estrangela style of writing seems to have gone out of use. It varied some- 
what in shape at different times, but it always retained its essential character. 
Sometimes the upper right-hand stroke is light and without any thickening 
or rounding at the end, 1 and sometimes it is heavy and the end is more or 
less nodular. 2 The Serta form of {, which is sometimes straight and some- 
times curved, made its appearance in the second quarter of the eighth cen- 
tury with the Serta style of writing; 3 and it remained a distinctive feature 
of this hand down through the sixteenth century. 4 Nestorian scribes used 
both the Estrangela t^ and the Serta J, and the two forms of the letter 
sometimes appear side by side in the same codex. 5 The Serta form of } was 
adopted by the Melkites and is characteristic of the Melkite script, 6 though 
the Estrangela form of the letter occasionally occurs in manuscripts of this 
class. 7 In the Palestinian style of writing rd always has the Estrangela form. 8 



In manuscripts of the fifth century * is generally angular, though it is 
sometimes rounded (>) ; and it nearly always has a point at the left to dis- 
tinguish it from "V 9 The angular form occurs much more frequently than its 
rival in Estrangela codices until the end of the ninth century. 10 In the tenth 
and eleventh centuries the rounded ? grew in favour, 11 and in the twelfth 



1 See e. g. Plates II-VI. 

2 See e. g. Plates I, III, IV, V, and VI. 

3 See Plate XCV. 

4 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

5 See Plate CLXXX. 

6 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 



7 See Plate CLXXXIV. 

8 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

9 See Plates I, III, IV, V, and VI. 

10 See Plates VII-LXX. 

11 See Plates LXXI-LXXX. 



32 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



and thirteenth it prevailed over the angular form. 12 The rounded form of 
the letter with a point below it (?) appears in the oldest Serta manuscripts, 13 
and it is a characteristic feature of the Serta style of writing in all periods. 
Both the angular a 14 and the rounded > 15 are found in Nestorian codices; 
and sometimes the point is placed below the angular a, 16 as it always is 
when the letter is rounded. A peculiar form of ?, like a reversed C with 
a point below it, occurs in some Nestorian manuscripts of the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. 17 Melkite scribes, who followed the 
Serta tradition, almost always employed the rounded ?. 18 Only the angular 
a is used in the Palestinian script. Sometimes it has a point at the left to 
distinguish it from l and sometimes it does not. 19 



CO 

oo has the familiar Estrangela form in manuscripts of the fifth cen- 
tury, 20 and the letter was made in this way as late as the thirteenth century. 21 
On the other hand the Serta form of 07 appears in an Estrangela codex 
written in 564 A. D., 22 and it grew in favour as time passed. It occurs in 
the latest Estrangela manuscript known to the present writer, which was 
copied in the year 1 567-1 568. 23 This form of 01 is also found in the earliest 
Serta codices, 24 and it continued to be used in manuscripts of this type 
down to the end of the sixteenth century. 25 Both 00 and 07 occur in Nes- 
torian texts, 26 but only the Serta form is employed in Melkite codices. 27 
In the Palestinian script co is of the Estrangela type, and it is stiff and 
angular. 28 

12 See Plates LXXXI-XCIII. 

13 See Plates XCV-C. 

14 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXIV, CLXV, CLXVII, CLXVIII, CLXIX, and CLXXII. 

15 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXII, CLXVI, and CLXXIII. 

16 See Plates CLXIII, CLXV, CLXVIII, CLXX, CLXXI, and CLXXIV. 

17 See Plates CLXXV, CLXXVI, CLXXVII, CLXXVIII, CLXXX, CLXXXI, 
CLXXXII, and CLXXXIII. See infra, p. 36. 

18 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 

19 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

20 See Plates I-VL 

21 See Plate XCI. 

22 See Plate XXVI. 

23 See Plate XCIV. 26 See e. g. Plates CLX and CLXI. 

24 See Plates XCV-C. 27 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 

25 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 28 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 



33 



Estrangela scribes used both the open o and the closed o. In manuscripts 
of the fifth century the letter is open at the bottom; and it is connected at 
the right with letters which end with a horizontal stroke, like \ y A, and a. 29 
The earliest example of the closed or circular o in the present collection 
occurs in an Estrangela codex written in 564 A. D. 30 This form of the 
letter became more common with the passage of time, and in the twelfth 
century it was the dominant type. 31 The closed o is found in Serta texts 
of all periods. It appears in the oldest manuscripts of this class, 32 and it 
had the field entirely to itself down to the end of the sixteenth century. 83 
On the other hand the Nestorians employed both the open o 84 and the closed 
o. 85 The former sometimes occurs in Melkite codices; 36 but the Melkite 
hand was derived from the Serta style of writing, and the closed form of 
the letter is naturally more common in Melkite texts. 37 In the Palestinian 
script o is always closed. 38 



In manuscripts of the fifth century £* is generally open at the bottom, 
and the top of the letter is only slightly curved. 39 However, it is sometimes 
closed at the bottom even in this early period. 40 The open zn was the pre- 
ferred Estrangela form of the letter for a long time, but in the twelfth 
century the closed form prevailed over its rival. 41 Nevertheless, the open 
M occurs in the Estrangela script as late as the second quarter of the thir- 
teenth century. 42 On the other hand the closed *o with the top sharply 
curved and the left-hand stroke usually more or less elevated is found in 
the earliest Serta codices, 43 and this form of the letter was characteristic of 
the Serta style of writing down to the end of the sixteenth century. 44 The 



29 See 

30 See 
81 See 

84 See 

85 See 

86 See 

87 See 

88 See 

89 See 
40 See 
"See 



Plates I-VL 

Plate XXVI. 82 See Plates XCV-C. 

Plates LXXXI-LXXXVI. 33 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXIII, CLXIV, CLXV, and CLXVIII. 

Plates CLXII, CLXVI, CLXXIII, CLXXV, and CLXXVI. 

Plates CLXXXVII and CXCVII. 

Plates CLXXXIV, CLXXXV, CLXXXVI, CLXXXVIII, and CLXXXIX. 

Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

Plates I-VL 42 See Plate XCI. 

Plates I, II, and VI. 43 See Plates XCV-C. 

Plates LXXXI-LXXXVI. 44 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 



34 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 



35 



Nestorians used both the open sa 45 and the closed *>. 46 Although the open 
^a is not unknown in Melkite manuscripts, 47 the letter is nearly always 
closed. In the Palestinian script za is closed and angular. 49 



In manuscripts written in the fifth and sixth centuries and in the first 
quarter of the seventh Co is usually unconnected, having no tail to connect 
it with the following letter. 50 However, in Estrangela texts copied between 
the last quarter of the seventh century and the last quarter of the eleventh 
the letter is sometimes unconnected 51 and sometimes joined to the following 
letter; 52 but from the second quarter of the twelfth century onward <fc 
was nearly always connected at the left. 53 The letter is also written in this 
way in the earliest Serta codices, 54 and it continued to be joined at the left 
down to the end of the sixteenth century. 55 In Nestorian texts to is some- 
times unconnected 56 and sometimes connected with the following letter; 57 
but in Melkite manuscripts, as in the Serta style of writing, the letter is 
joined to the one that comes after it. 58 Similarly in the Palestinian hand 
to is connected at the left. 59 



45 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXIV, CLXV, CLXVII, CLXVIII, and CLXIX. 

46 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXII, CLXVI, CLXXIII, and CLXXV. 

47 See Plate CLXXXVII. 

48 See e. g. Plates CLXXXIV, CLXXXV, CLXXXVI, CLXXXVIII, CLXXXIX, 
and CXC. 

49 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

50 See Plates I-XLII. Very rarely to is connected with or adjoins the following 
letter. See Plates IV, XVII, and XL. 

51 See e.g. Plates XLIV, L, LXVII, LXXIII, LXXIX, and LXXX. 

52 See e. g. Plates XLIII, LI, LXIII, LXXV, LXXVII, and LXXX. to is some- 
times connected with the following letter and sometimes unconnected in the same 
manuscript. See Plate LXXX. 

53 See Plates LXXXI-XC and XCII-XCIV. Only one exception is known to the 
present writer. See Plate XCI. 

54 See Plates XCV-C. 

55 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

56 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXIII, CLXIV, CLXVII, CLXVIII, and CLXX 
Sometimes to and the following letter adjoin. 

57 See e. g. Plates CLXII, CLXVI, CLXXV, CLXXVI, CLXXVII, and CLXXVIII. 

58 See e. g. Plates CLXXXIV-CLXXXIX. 

59 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 






t or £ 

In the Palestinian script a hard or unaspirated a is represented by a 
character which resembles a reversed figure 2 sometimes with and sometimes 
without two points over it (jj or $). 80 It stands for II in proper names 
and loan-words of Greek origin. Sometimes also it is used for a in Syriac 
words. 61 There is nothing corresponding to this letter in the other styles 
of writing. 



In manuscripts of the fifth century _q is angular in shape, 62 and the 
letter is angular in Estrangela texts of all periods. It has this form in a 
codex which was copied in 1 567-1 568 A. D. 63 So, too, -x» is angular in the 
earliest Serta manuscripts. 64 On the other hand the rounded -o is found 
in a Serta codex written in the last quarter of the eleventh century, 65 and 
this was the preferred form of the letter in the twelfth century. 66 The 
rounded -o soon became established in the Serta script, and it continued 
to be characteristic of this style of writing down to the end of the sixteenth 
century. 67 The angular jj, however, did not pass out of use. It was em- 
ployed both by the Nestorians 6S and by the Mellcites. 69 In this respect the 
latter followed the earlier Serta tradition. The angular -n was used in 
Nestorian 70 and Melkite 71 texts as late as the last quarter of the sixteenth 
century, -a has the angular form also in the Palestinian script. 72 

60 See Plates CXCVIII and CXCIX. 

61 See A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the 
Gospels (London, 1899), p. xiv. 

62 See Plates I-VI. 

63 See Plate XCIV. 

64 See Plates XCV-C. 

65 See Plate CXXIV. 

88 See Plates CXXVI, CXXVIII, CXXIX,CXXX, and CXXXI 

87 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

88 See e. g. Plates CLX-CLXVIII. 

89 See e. g. Plates CLXXXIV-CLXXXIX. 

70 See Plate CLXXXIII. 

71 See Plate CXCVII. 

72 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 




36 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



In manuscripts of the fifth century \ is sometimes angular 73 and some 
times rounded (*) , 74 but the rounded form was more common in this period 
There is nearly always a point over the letter to distinguish it from *. In 
the sixth century the angular 1 gained the ascendancy over its competitor, 75 
but both types continued to be used in Estrangela texts for a long time. 
However, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the rounded form of the 
letter had the field almost entirely to itself; 76 and the rounded > is found in 
an Estrangela codex written in the year 1 567-1 568" The rounded form of 
i occurs in the oldest Serta manuscripts, 78 and it was a characteristic feature 
of this style of writing down to the end of the sixteenth century. 79 Nes- 
torian scribes employed both the angular \ 80 and the rounded J 81 ; and in 
some Nestorian codices copied in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries i resembles a reversed C with a point over it. 82 In Melkite manu- 
scripts, as in Serta texts, the rounded form of the letter is almost always 
used. 83 On the other hand in the Palestinian script -\ is always angular, 
and nearly always there is a point over it to distinguish it from a. 84 



In the earliest manuscripts x has the familiar Estrangela form (x), 80 
and the letter continued to have essentially this shape in Estrangela codices 
down to the third quarter of the sixteenth century. 86 x is made in the same 
way in the oldest Serta manuscripts, 87 and the letter underwent little change 
until the last quarter of the eleventh century. At this time the rounded a 
appeared alongside of the older form, 88 and in the twelfth and thirteenth 

73 See Plates I-VI. 

74 See Plates I-VI. 77 See Plate XCIV. 

75 See Plates VII-XXXVI. 78 See Plates XCV-C. 

76 See Plates LXXXI-XCIII. 79 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

80 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXIV, CLXV, CLXVII, CLXVIII, CLXIX, and CLXX. 

81 See e. a. Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXII, CLXVI, CLXXIII, and CLXXV. 

82 See Plates CLXXV, CLXXVI, CLXXVII, CLXXVIII, CLXXX, CLXXXI, 
CLXXXII, and CLXXXIII. See supra, p. 32. 

83 See Plates CLXXXI V-CXC VII. 

84 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

85 See Plates I-VI. 

86 See Plate XCIV. 

87 See Plates XCV-C. 88 See Plate CXXIV. 






OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 37 

centuries it was much more popular than its rival. 89 As early as the begin- 
ning of the last quarter of the thirteenth century the letter was sometimes 
pointed at the top and triangular in form (_1_). 90 The rounded * and the 
triangular _l_ had the ascendancy over the Estrangela x in the fourteenth 
century, 91 and in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the two newer forms 
of the letter had the field entirely to themselves. 92 Both the Nestorians 93 
and the Melkites 94 followed the earlier custom and employed only the 
Estrangela form of x. In the Palestinian script x is forked, resembling 
sometimes a V and sometimes a Y. 95 



The Estrangela form of £1 occurs in manuscripts of the fifth century, 90 
and it continued to be employed as long as the Estrangela hand was written. 97 
In other words its use extended from the first quarter of the fifth century 
to the third quarter of the sixteenth. Sometimes, in early as well as in later 
codices, the loop is large and nearly triangular, 98 and sometimes it is small 
and solid. 99 Sometimes also the loop is rounded. 100 The Serta form of L> 
which was developed out of the Estrangela &\ with a small and solid loop, 
is found in the earliest Serta manuscripts; 101 and it was a distinctive feature 
of this hand down to the end of the sixteenth century. 102 Even in the 
earliest examples it is connected with certain letters at the right by means 
of an oblique or upright stroke, so that it has the form K. The Serta JL 
is regularly used in Nestorian codices of the Serta type, and in these it 
has the oblique stroke when it is not connected with the preceding letter 
and even when it stands at the beginning of a word. 103 The Serta form of 
JL, as one would expect, is employed in most Melkite manuscripts. 104 Here 



89 See Plates CXXV-CXXXIX. 

90 See Plate CXXXVIII. 

91 See Plates CXL-CXLVI. 

92 See Plates CXLVII-CLIX. 

93 See Plates CLX-CLXXXIII. 



94 See Plates CLXXXI V-CXC VII. 

95 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

96 See Plates I-VI. 

97 See Plate XCIV. 



98 See e. g. Plates I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and XCI. 

99 See e. g. Plates I, III, IV, V, VI, LXXXIX, XC, XCII, XCIII, and XCIV. 

100 See e. g. Plates VII, VIII, XVI, XXV, XXX, and XXXII. 

101 See Plates XCV-C. 

102 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

103 See Plates CLXXIII, CLXXVI, CLXXVII, CLXXVIII, and CLXXXI. 

104 See Plates CLXXXIV, CLXXXV, CLXXXVI, CLXXXVIII, CLXXXIX, CXC, 
CXCI, CXCII, CXCIII, CXCV, CXCVI, and CXCVII. 



38 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORMS OF CERTAIN LETTERS 39 



it has the oblique stroke when it is connected with the preceding letter, 
but it does not have this stroke when it is unconnected at the right or when 
it begins a word. Sometimes, both in Serta and in Melkite codices, the 
lower part of the letter consists of two downward projecting prongs. 105 The 
Palestinian & resembles that letter in the Estrangela script. In the second 
quarter of the eleventh century the loop was triangular; 106 and in the first 
quarter of the twelfth it was nearly or quite elliptical, the loop lying on its 
side and the vertical stroke rising from the lower side and passing through 
the center and upper side. 107 



Final Letters: 



^, 



anc 



and ^. 



kt\ anu y, ^,, ^ anu jo, «*. 

Final v\ is found in the earliest manuscripts, 108 and it was used in 

Estrangela codices as late as the third quarter of the sixteenth century. 109 
The earlier form of the letter was also employed in the Serta style of writing 
until the second quarter of the twelfth century and occasionally thereafter. 110 
The later form of final y appeared in the second quarter of the twelfth 
century, 111 and it continued in use down to the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. 112 Both the Nestorians 118 and the Melkites 114 used only the earlier 
form. So, too, in the Palestinian script final %r\ resembles the earlier form 
of the letter. 115 ' 

Final ^ occurs in the oldest Serta codices, 116 and it was a char- 
acteristic of the Serta hand down to the end of the sixteenth century. 117 
It also appears in a Nestorian text which was copied in 1477 A. D., 118 but 
it never became established in this style of writing. On the other hand 
Melkite scribes regularly used final ^. 119 In the Estrangela and Palestinian 

105 See e. g. Plates XCV, XCVI, XCVII, CLXXXIX, CXC, and CXCI. 

106 See Plate CXCVIII. 

107 See Plates CXCIX and CC. 

108 See Plates I-VI. 

109 See Plate XCIV. 

110 See e. g. Plates XCVI, XCVII, XCVIII, CXXV, CXXVII, and CXXXIX. 

111 See Plate CXXVI. 

112 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 115 See Plates CXCIX and CC. 

113 See Plates CLX-CLXXXIII. 116 See Plates XCV-C. 

114 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 117 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

118 See Plate CLXXVII. Sometimes the end of the horizontal stroke in \ is ele- 
vated, so that the letter approaches final ^ in form. See Plate CLXXXI. 

119 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 









scripts A at the end of a word does not differ from initial and medial A 
in form. 

Final 71 which is always closed at the bottom, is found in manuscripts 
of the fifth century; 120 and it was employed consistently in the Estrangela 
script as long as that style of writing remained in use. 121 Final jo occurs in 
the earliest Serta codices, 122 and it was used by scribes who wrote the Serta 
hand down to the end of the sixteenth century. 123 Likewise final J* appears 
in Nestorian 124 and Melkite 125 texts of all dates. On the other hand in 
the Palestinian script » at the end of a word is not differentiated from 
initial and medial :sa. 126 

Nun at the end of a word differs in form from initial and medial 1 in all 
styles of Syriac handwriting. Final ^^ is found in the earliest 127 as well 
as in the latest 128 Estrangela manuscripts. In like manner final y,, which is 
joined to letters ending with a horizontal stroke, appears in the oldest Serta 
texts; 129 and it was used continuously down to the end of the sixteenth 
century. 130 So, too, both the Nestorians 131 and the Melkites 132 always em- 
ployed it in their writing. Similarly also in the Palestinian script Nun at the 
end of a word has the final form ( O- 133 

The earliest example of final <*. known to the present writer occurs in 
a Serta codex which was written in 790 A. D. 134 Thereafter it was regularly 
used in Serta texts down to the second half of the sixteenth century. 135 
Final ^ is found in a Nestorian manuscript which is dated in the year 
1477, 136 and it appears in a Melkite codex which was copied in 141 8 A. D. 137 
However, it never became common in either of these styles of writing. In 
the Estrangela and Palestinian scripts x. at the end of a word is not dis- 
tinguished in form from initial and medial ^., 138 

120 See Plates I, III, IV, and V. 122 See Plates XCVI-CI. 

121 See Plate XCIV. 123 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

124 See Plates CLX, CLXI, CLXII, CLXIII, CLXV, CLXVI, CLXVII, CLXVIII, 
CLXIX, CLXX, CLXXI, CLXXII, CLXXIII, CLXXIV, CLXXVI, CLXXVII, 
CLXXVIII, CLXXIX, CLXXX, CLXXXI, CLXXXII, and CLXXXIII. 

125 See Plates CLXXXIV, CLXXXV, CLXXXVI, CLXXXVII, CLXXXVIII, 
CLXXXIX, CXCI, CXCm, CXCIV, CXCVI, and CXCVII. 

126 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

127 See Plates I-VI. 1S1 See Plates CLX-CLXXXIII. 

128 See Plates XCII-XCIV. 132 See Plates CLXXXIV-CXCVII. 

129 See Plates XCV-C. * 33 See p lates CXCVIII-CC. 

130 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. »* See Plate XCVI. 

135 See Plate CLVII. Final ^ happens not to occur in Plates CLVIII and CLIX. 

136 See Plate CLXXVII. ™ See Plate CXCI. 
138 See Plates I-XCIV and CXCVIII-CC. 



4° 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



SEYAME, THE SINGLE POINT, ETC. 



41 



JJ, :ss, and >$ . 

When { follows i> and when initial { is followed by ^ the two letters 
are often written thus in Serta and Melkite texts: JJ and Ss. The former 
of these is also found in Nestorian manuscripts. JJ, two parallel vertical 
lines connected with a bar at the bottom, occurs in a Serta codex which was 
copied in 731-732 A. D. 139 2^, in which ( is an oblique stroke, appears 
later. The earliest example of it in the present collection is found in a Serta 
manuscript which is dated in the year 823. 140 These ways of writing the 
above-mentioned letters were devised at an early date by scribes who used 
the Serta script. Two examples of >^$, i. e. final ^ + initial { of the fol- 
lowing word, are included in this work. The earlier is in a Serta codex 
which was written in 11 74 A. D., 141 and the later is in a Serta manuscript 
copied in the year 1 563. 142 

XIII 

seyAme, the single point, qushshAyA and rukkAkA, 
and linea occultans 

In Syriac manuscripts of all periods, in the earliest as well as in the 
latest, two points, known as Seyame (r£za*£) or plural points (^\i>cu 
f^cu^i^aa) are employed to indicate the plural. 1 They are usually written 
horizontally over some letter of the plural word; 2 and they are found in 
Estrangela, Serta, Nestorian, and Melkite codices. In the Palestinian script 
the two points are sometimes used and sometimes omitted. 3 

As early as the fifth century after Christ a single point (i^\ncu) was 
put over or under a letter to shew the quality of the vowel accompanying 
the letter, as xzh< and tt< ^cuco and ^cuco etc. 4 The superior 

139 See Plate XCV. 141 See Plate CXXX. 

140 See Plate XCVIII. 142 See Plate CLVII. 

1 See Plates I, II, III, IV, V, VI, XCIII, XCIV, CLVII, CLVIII, CLXXXII, 
CLXXXIII, and CXCVII. 

2 Over letters which begin with an oblique stroke the points are written to the 
right of the oblique stroke, as A** and Si. 

3 See plates CXCVIII-CC. On Seyame see Th. Noldeke, Kurzgefasste syrische 
Grammatik (Leipzig, 1880), pp. 10 f.; and R. Duval, Traite de grammaire syriaque 
(Paris, 1881), pp. 123 ft. 

4 See Plates I, III, and IV. 



point indicates the fuller and stronger pronunciation, whereas the inferior 
point denotes the lighter and weaker pronunciation. This point was em- 
ployed in Estrangela, 5 Serta, 6 Nestorian, 7 and Melkite 8 manuscripts down 
to the end of the sixteenth century. It also occurs in the Palestinian script. 9 

Both the Nestorians and the Jacobites indicated the hard or unaspirated 
sound of the Ais^i^ri letters by placing a point over them and the soft 
or aspirated sound by putting a point under them. The superior point was 
called Qushshaya, and the inferior point was known as Rukkaka. The 
earliest example of these points in the present collection is found in a 
Nestorian codex which was copied in 599-600 A. D., 10 and the earliest in- 
stance of them in a Serta manuscript occurs in a text written in the year 
73 1-732. lx Both of these points continued to be used down to the end of 
the sixteenth century. 12 In the Palestinian script a point is placed over £1 
to indicate the soft or aspirated sound of the letter. 13 

Linea occultans is sometimes employed in Nestorian 14 and Serta 15 
codices. The earliest example of it in the present collection occurs in a 
Nestorian manuscript which was copied in 1 206-1 207 A. D., 16 and the first 
instance of it in a Serta text is found in a codex written in the year 1478. 17 
The Nestorians put the line over the letter to be obscured, whereas the 
Jacobites placed it under the letter. No cases of linea occultans in Estrangela, 
Melkite, or Palestinian manuscripts are known to the present writer. 18 

5 See Plate XCIV. 

6 See Plates CLVII-CLIX. 

7 See Plates CLXXXI-CLXXXIII. 

8 See Plates CXCVI and CXCVII. 

9 See Plate CXCVIII. On the single point see the Abbe J. P. P. Martin in the 
Journal Asiatique, Septieme Serie, V, pp. 98 ff. 

10 See Plate CLX. 

11 See Plate XCV. No instance of Qushshaya occurs on the page reproduced in 
Plate XCV, but this point is found elsewhere in the codex. 

12 See Plates XCIV, CLVIII, CLIX, CLX, CLXXXII, and CLXXXIII. On 
Qushshaya and Rukkaka see the Abbe J. P. P. Martin in of. cit., Septieme Serie, V, 
pp. 196 ff.; and R. Duval, op. cit., pp. 1 12 ff. 

13 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. See also Th. Noldeke in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXII, pp. 452 f. 

14 See Plates CLXIX, CLXX, CLXXII, CLXXXII, and CLXXXIII. 

15 See Plates CL and CLVIII. 

16 See Plate CLXIX. 17 See Plate CL. 

18 On linea occultans see the Abbe J. P. P. Martin in op. cit., Sixieme Serie, XIX, 
pp. 381 ff.; and R. Duval, op. cit., pp. i3of. 







AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



XIV 
PUNCTUATION 

Marks of punctuation occur in all styles of Syriac handwriting. In the 
earliest manuscripts a single point is used to indicate a short pause; and a 
full stop is denoted by three or four small circles or by the sign • :-, whose 
form varies somewhat in different codices. 1 In the sixth century two points 
were employed to indicate a short pause. In some manuscripts one stands 
directly above the other (:), 2 and in others the upper point is a little to 
the right CO- 3 Sometimes on the other hand the upper point is put a 
little to the left of the lower point ( # .)- 4 Each of the three forms of the 
double point is used in an Estrangela codex written in 1 177 A. D. 5 

Four marks of punctuation are found in the Palestinian script— two (:), 
three (•:), four (•:•)> and six points (. : .). 6 The four-point sign is often 
placed at the end of a lection. 7 

XV 
GERSHUNI 

After Arabic had become the vernacular of Syria, Arabic texts were 
sometimes written with Syriac letters. The handwriting was Syriac, but 
the language was Arabic. This kind of writing is known in Arabic as jk* 
J^SS ; and in Syriac it is called Karshuni, Garshuni, or Gershuni. 1 Even 
the form Akarshuni occurs. 2 

1 See Plates I, III, IV, V, VI, X, XI, and XXI. 

2 See Plate VII. 

3 See Plate XXIII. 5 See Plate LXXXIII. 

4 See Plates XXXI and XXXIII. 6 See Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

7 On the punctuation used in Greek codices see W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal 
Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament (Chicago, 1939), p. 24. 

1 The word is spelled both with a *i and with a -^ in Syriac manuscripts, and the 
vowel in the first syllable is sometimes -£-. Among the monks of the Syrian Orthodox 
Convent of St. Mark in Jerusalem the present writer heard only " Gershuni," which 
was declared by them to be the correct form. Archbishop Barsaum of Horns also pro- 
nounced the word in the same way, and he defended his pronunciation of it on the 
ground that it is derived from Gershun. See also A. Mingana in The Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1928, pp. 891 ff. 

2 See W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum 
(London, 1 870-1 872), Part I, p. 2. 



GERSHUNI 



43 



The origin of the name is unknown. It is said, however, that one 
Karshun Qo^j^ was the first to write the Arabic language with Syriac 
characters. Hence Arabic written with the Syriac alphabet was called Kar- 
shuni from the name of the man who introduced the custom. 3 According to 
another account Gershuni is derived from Gershun (•^jxi^O, the eldest 
son of Moses and Zipporah, who was born in Midian. 4 His father was a 
stranger Cu) in Midian, and he heard there a strange language. To the 
Syrians Arabic was a strange language, even when it was written with 
Syriac letters; and therefore it was called Gershuni. These explanations, 
however, are merely attempts to account for the origin of a usage whose 
beginning was quite forgotten. 

M. Duval suggests that as Moses was believed to be the inventor of 
writing, so his eldest son was regarded as the originator of this particular 
kind of writing. 5 Gershuni might easily become Garshuni, and the latter 
might in turn be corrupted into Karshuni. 

The writing of a foreign language with a native alphabet is not unusual. 
The so-called Christians of St. Thomas on the Malabar coast of India write 
Malayalam with Syriac characters, and they know this kind of script as 
gerisoni. 6 

In like manner Latin texts were sometimes spelled with Greek letters, 
as several extant inscriptions shew. 7 Moreover, many examples of Latin 
words written with Greek characters are found in the Book of Armagh, 
a Vulgate codex copied probably at Armagh in the early part of the ninth 
century. 8 There are five continuous passages of this sort, viz. the Lord's 
Prayer in Matthew (fol. 36), the call of Levi in Matthew (fol. 37 v.)> and 

3 The first to explain the word thus were Gabriel Sionita and Faustus Naironius 
in the preface to their Novum Testamentum Syriace et Arabice (Rome, 1703). The 
present writer has not been able to consult this work. 

4 See Exodus 2 : 22. The name is here pointed ^6jl^^ in the Peshitta text. The 
Assemanis derive the word from garshun, which according to them means alien or 
foreign. See S. E. and J. S. Assemani, Bibliothecae Apostolicae Vaticanae Codicum 
Manuscriptorum Catalogus (Rome, 1 756-1 759), Pars I, Tomus II, pp. xxiiif. 

5 See R. Duval, Traite de grammaire syriaque (Paris, 1881), p. 11, note 1. 

6 See J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1862-1875), I, pp. 11 and 91 f. 

7 See e.g. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Berlin, 1863- ), VI, Nos. 3008, 
1 1933, 20294, an d 2,2176; X, Nos. 2145 and 6608; and H. Dessau, Inscriptiones 
Latinae Selectae (Berlin, 1892-19 16), II, 2, p. 1000 (No. 8757). 

8 See J. Gwynn, The Book of Armagh (Dublin and London, 191 3), pp. cxxiv f. 



44 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



three subscriptions (foil. 53 v. and 222 v.)- 9 Single words and parts of 
words are often spelled with Greek letters, e.g. AMBYAANC, HCTuuTG, 
MHNC6, TTATP6M, TTPO<t>HTAC, Hcce, Hgo, and Hrant. The scribe's 
failure to distinguish between long and short vowels proves that he knew 
very little Greek. 

Conversely some inscriptions have been discovered which contain Greek 
texts written with Latin characters. 10 A Graeco-Armenian papyrus was 
found in Egypt in 1892. The words are Greek and the letters are Armenian. 
The contents are very miscellaneous— simple sentences, the conjugation of 
6X°> i n the present indicative active, and a number of substantives. The 
writer, who may have been a soldier stationed in Egypt, was an Armenian; 
and the papyrus is an exercise which he wrote when he was learning Greek. 
It measures 19 cm. X 16 cm., and it apparently dates from the first half of 
the seventh century after Christ. It may be the earliest extant example of 
Armenian handwriting. 11 The present writer has seen a Graeco-Turkish 
manuscript of the Four Gospels in which the Turkish text is spelled with 
Greek characters. 12 There are two columns on each page, the Turkish script 
being in the one on the right and the Greek in the one on the left. The 
codex was copied in 1 724 A. D. 



XVI 
PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF SYRIAC HANDWRITING 

Estrangela manuscripts may be divided into three classes: 
Period I. From 400 A. D. to the middle of the seventh century after 
Christ. 1 

9 There are two subscriptions on fol. 53 v., the second one being partly obliterated. 
See J. Gwynn, op. cit., p. cxvi. 

10 See e.g. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, IV, No. 4519; VI, Nos. 20616 and 
21617; and XIV, No. 603; and H. Dessau, op. cit., II, 1, p. 306 (No. 5141); and II, 
2, p. 997 (No. 8750). 

11 See G. Cuendet in Annuaire de VInstitut de Philologie et X Histoire Orientales 
et Slaves (Universite Libre de Bruxelles), V (Melanges £mile Boisacq), pp. 219 ff.; 
id. in Handes Amsorya, LII, pp. 57 ff.; and M. Leroy in Byzantion, XIII, 2, pp. 513 ff. 

12 Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchal Library, Tdfov 62 (1325 Gregory). For a descrip- 
tion and facsimile of the manuscript see W. H. P. Hatch, The Greek Manuscripts of 
the New Testament in Jerusalem (Paris, 1934), Plate LXV. 

1 See Plates I-XLII. 




PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF SYRIAC HANDWRITING 



45 



In this period the letters are well formed and clear, and the hand is 
strong and legible. The best writing produced during these two and a half 
centuries is characterized by lightness, grace, and simple elegance. 

It is a striking and interesting fact that no dated Syriac codices are extant 
which were written between 621-622 and 682 A. D.— a period of sixty years. 
It is difficult to believe that this is entirely the result of accident. On the 
contrary it is probably due to the political unrest which prevailed in Syria 
during those years. From 622 to 627 A. D. the country was harassed by 
the campaigns which the Emperor Heraclius made against the Persians, and 
soon after the defeat and death of Chosroes II the Arabs appeared on the 
Syrian frontier. Within a short time they invaded Syria; and Damascus, 
Aleppo, Antioch, and other cities fell speedily into their hands. By the 
year 638 the conquest of the country was complete. 

e Omar, the caliph of the conquests, was murdered in 644 A. D. Under 
'Othman (644-656 A. D.) and *Ali (656-661 A. D.), who both met violent 
deaths, there was much internal strife and warfare throughout the Moslem 
world. Muawiya I (661-680 A. D.), a member of the Meccan aristocracy, 
was governor of Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. After the murder of 
\Ali in the year 661 he obtained the caliphate and became the founder of 
the Omayyad dynasty. Both as governor and as caliph Mu awiya displayed 
much vigour and ability, but he was almost continually engaged in con- 
troversy or war. Such conditions tended to produce turmoil, and turmoil 
is always inimical to the arts of peace. 

On the other hand Christianity, like Judaism and Zoroastrianism, was 
recognized as a book-religion by the Moslems; and consequently Christians 
were treated with tolerance, and they were not forced to accept Islam. Many 
of them occupied governmental positions, and some found favour in the 
eyes of the Arabs and rose to posts of confidence and responsibility. They 
enjoyed the protection and security afforded by a settled government. 

Period II. From the middle of the seventh century after Christ to 
900 A. D. 2 

In this period the handwriting is clear and legible, but it has less light- 
ness and grace than the best writing of the preceding epoch. However, no 
sign of decadence is discernible. 

Period III. From 900 A. D. to the middle of the thirteenth century. 8 

2 See Plates XLIII-LXX. 

3 See Plates LXXI-XCIII. 



46 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



This is a period of decline. The letters are often heavy and angular, and 
the writing is stiff and lacking in grace. Sometimes it gives the impression 
of too great condensation, and sometimes carelessness on the part of the 
scribe is manifest. This deterioration, however, was by no means universal; 
for some of the better written codices of this epoch closely resemble some 
of those which were copied in the second period. 4 After the middle of the 
thirteenth century the Estrangela hand seems to have gone out of general 
use. Nevertheless, it continued to be employed in the region of Tur-'Abdin 
as late as the third quarter of the sixteenth century. 5 

Serta manuscripts may be divided into two classes: 

Period I. From 700 A. D. to 1 100 A. D. 6 

During these four centuries the more carefully written specimens of the 
Serta script are clear and legible. 7 Sometimes, however, the writing is more 
condensed and harder to read. 8 In some codices rC f -a, and x are made 
in the Estrangela manner. 9 

Period II. From 11 00 A. D. to the end of the sixteenth century. 10 

In this period, as in the preceding one, the more carefully executed 
manuscripts are clear and legible. 11 Some, however, shew haste or careless- 
ness on the scribe's part. 12 }, s>, and jl ordinarily have the Serta form. 

Nestorian codices may be divided into two classes: 

Period I. From 600 A. D. to the middle of the thirteenth century after 
Christ. 13 

During these six hundred and fifty years the Nestorians used the 
Estrangela script with the Nestorian vowel points. Some of the texts pro- 
duced in this epoch are remarkably clear and legible, and they are not in- 
ferior in workmanship to Estrangela writing of the same age. 14 Sometimes, 
however, as was inevitable, the copyists were less careful or skillful. 15 

4 See e. g. Plates LXXVI, LXXX, and XCI. 

5 See Plate XCIV. 

6 See Plates XCV-CXXIV. 

7 See e. g. Plates XCV, XCVII, CXIII, and CXVIII. 

8 See e. g. Plates XCVIII, CV, and CXI. 

9 See e. g. Plates CI, CVII, CVIII, CXII, and CXIX. 

10 See Plates CXXV-CLIX. 

11 See e. g. Plates CXXIX, CXXX, CXXXI, CXXXIX, and CLVI. 

12 See e. g. Plates CXXV, CXXXIII, CXXXIV, CXLII, and CXLIII. , 

13 See Plates CLX-CLXXII. 

14 See e. g. Plates CLX, CLXIV, CLXVII, CLXVIII, CLXIX, and CLXXIL 

15 See e. g. Plates CLXIII and CLXVI. 



PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF SYRIAC HANDWRITING 



47 






Period II. From the middle of the thirteenth century after Christ to 
the end of the sixteenth century. 16 

Throughout this period both the Estrangela 17 and Serta 18 styles of 
writing were employed by Nestorian scribes, and in some manuscripts both 
kinds of letters were used. 19 The best written specimens are of the Estrangela 

type- 20 

Melkite codices may be divided into three classes: 

Period I. From the middle of the eleventh century after Christ to 
1418A.D. 21 

During these centuries the Melkite hand was at its best. Although 
it is not particularly beautiful, it is clear and legible; and it compares 
favourably with many examples of the Serta script produced in the same 
epoch. 22 

Period II. From the middle of the fifteenth century after Christ to the 
end of the fifteenth century. 23 

In this period the character of the Melkite hand suffered a decline. The 
letters are often stiff and angular, and the writing sometimes has an ap- 
pearance of carelessness. 

Period III. From the middle of the sixteenth century after Christ to 
the end of the sixteenth century. 24 

In this half-century the character of the Melkite script improved. The 
letters are carefully formed, and the writing is neat and regular. 

The three specimens of the Palestinian style of writing which are con- 
tained in the present collection are the only dated Palestinian manuscripts 
known to the writer. 25 They were all copied within a period of less than 
ninety years, so that little development in the script is discernible. The latest 
of them, however, is less well written than either of the earlier examples 
of this hand. 26 



16 See 

17 See 

18 See 

19 See 

20 See 

21 See 

22 See 

23 See 

24 See 

25 See 

26 See 



Plates CLXXIII-CLXXXIII. 

e. g. Plates CLXXIV, CLXXIX, and CLXXXIII. 

e. g. Plates CLXII, CLXXVII, and CLXXXI. 

e. g. Plates CLXXV, CLXXX, and CLXXXII. 

Plates CLXXIV, CLXXIX, and CLXXXIII. 

Plates CLXXXIV-CXCI. 

e. g. Plates CLXXXIV, CLXXXV, CLXXXVI, and CXCI. 

Plates CXCII-CXCV. 

Plates CXCVI and CXCVII. 

Plates CXCVIII-CC. 

Plate CC. 






PLATES 



LIST OF PLATES 



ESTRANGELA 



Saec. VII 



Sabc. V 



Plate I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 



411 
459-460 

462 

463-464 

473 
474 



A. D. 



Saec. VI 



Plate VII 
VIII 
IX 
X 
XI 
XII 

XIII 528-529 to 
XIV 
XV 
XVI 
XVII 
XVIII 
XIX 
XX 
XXI 
XXII 
XXIII 
XXIV 
XXV 
XXVI 
XXVII 
XXVIII 
XXIX 
XXX 
XXXI 
XXXII 
XXXIII 
XXXIV 
XXXV 
XXXVI 



-JO9 A. D. 

510-511 
512 

518 

522 

528 
537-538 

532. 

532. 
533-534 

534 

535 

540-541 

548 

55o-55i 
552 
553 
557 
563 
564 
564 

565 
569 
569 
581 
581 

584 
586 

593 
598-599 



Plate XXXVII 
XXXVIII 
XXXIX 
XL 
XLI 
XLII 
XLIII 
XLIV 
XLV 
XLVI 



603 A. D. 

604 

6ll 
613-614 

615 
621-622 

682 

688 
697 
698 



Saec. VIII 



Plate XLVII 
XLVIII 
XLIX 
L 
LI 
LII 
LIII 
LIV 
LV 
LVI 
LVII 
LVIII 

Plate LIX 
LX 
LXI 
LXII 
LXIII 
LXIV 
LXV 
LXVI 
LXVII 
LXVIII 
LXIX 
LXX 

Plate LXXI 



Saec. IX 



720 
723 
724 
726 

734 
736 
740-741 
756 
769 

77° 

774-775 

789 

802 
804 
815 
817 
819-830 
823-824 
824 

837 
844-845 

857 

858-859 

873-874 



A. D. 



A. D. 



Saec. X 



913 A. D. 



49 



5° 



AN ALBUM OF DATED SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 



LXXII 


928-929 


CIX 


883-884 


LXXIII 


935-936 


cx 


885-886 


LXXIV 


956 


CXI 


887-888 


LXXV 


979-980 


CXII 


892-893 


LXXVI 


994 


Saec 


:. X 


LXXVII 


999-1000 


Plate CXIII 


902-903 A. D. 


Saec. 


XI 


CXIV 


927 


Plate LXXVIII 


IO07 A. D. 


CXV 


929 


LXXIX 


I08l 


CXVI 


932 


LXXX 


I089 


CXVII 


IOOO 


Saec. 


XII 


Saec 


. XI 


Plate LXXXI 
LXXXII 


1 138 A. D. 
1 149 


Plate CXVIII 


1 1 003- 1 004— 

il028-I029 A. D. 
IOI5 


LXXXIII 


1 177 


CXIX 


LXXXIV 


II91 


CXX 


I033-I034 


LXXXV 


1 192 


CXXI 


I04I 


LXXXVI 


1 195 


CXXII 


I056 


Saec 


XIII 


CXXIII 


1 074- 1 075 


Plate LXXXVII 


1 202-1 203 A. D. 


CXXIV 


I085 


LXXXVIII 


12.03 


Saec. 


XII 


LXXXIX 


I2I7-I2I8 


Plate CXXV 


1 102 A. D. 


XC 


1222 


CXXVI 


II28-II29 


XCI 


I230 


CXXVII 


"33 


XCII 


I25I 


CXXVIII 


1 165 


XCIII 


I255 


CXXIX 


1169-1170 


Saec. 


XVI 


CXXX 


1 174 


Plate XCIV 


1 567-1 568 A. D. 


CXXXI 


1193-1194 


SERTA 


Saec. 


XIII 




• 


Plate CXXXII 


1210 A. D. 


Saec. 


VIII 


CXXXIII 


I2l8 


Plate XCV 


731-732 A.D. 


CXXXIV 


1230 


XCVI 


790 


exxxv 


I2 34 


Saec. 


IX 


CXXXVI 


1242 


Plate XCVII 


816 A. D. 


CXXXVII 


1264 


XCVIII 


823 


CXXXVIII 


1276 


XCIX 

C 

CI 


823 

839 

844-845 


CXXXIX 


1291-1292 


Saec. 


XIV 


CII 


850 


Plate CXL 


I308-I309 A. D. 


cm 


865-866 


CXLI 


1323 


CIV 


866 


CXLII 


1335 


cv 


867-868 


CXLIII 


1347 


CVI 


874-875 


CXLIV 


1364 


CVII 


876 


CXLV 


1 373-1 374 


CVIII 


876-877 


CXLVI 


1397 



LIST OF PLATES 



5 1 



Saec. XV 


Saec. XIV 




Plate CXLVII i4 2 5 a- d - 
CXLVIII 1457 


Plate CLXXV 
CLXXVI 


1301 a. d. 

I380 


CXLIX 1468 
CL 1478 
CLI 1480-1481 
CLII 1483-1484 


Saec. XV 




Plate CLXXVII 
CLXXVIII 
CLXXIX 


1477 A. D. 

I484 

I498 


Saec. XVI 


Saec. XVI 




Plate CLIII 1 503-1 504 a. d. 


Plate CLXXX 


I5IO A. D. 


CLIV t5 21 


CLXXXI 1544 


^545 


CLV 1535 


CLXXXII 


1574 


CLVI 1555 


CLXXXIII 


1586 


CLVII 1563 






CLVIII 1 575-i 576 






CLIX i593- J 594 


MELKITE 
Saec. XI 




NESTORIAN 


Plate CLXXXIV 


IO45 A. D. 


Saec. VI 


Saec. XIII 




Plate CLX 599-600 a. d. 


Plate CLXXXV 


I2o8 A. D. 


Saec. VII 


CLXXXVI 
CLXXXVII 


121 3 
1222 


Plate CLXI 614-615 a. d. 


CLXXXVIII 


I236 


Saec. VIII 


CLXXXIX 1258-1259 


Plate CLX1I 719-720 a. d. 


exc 


1284 


CLXIII 767-768 


Saec. XV 






Plate CXCI 


1418 A.D. 


Saec. IX 


CXCII 


I448 


Plate CLXIV 861-862 a. d. 


CXCIII 


1477 


CLXV 894 


CXCIV 


1494 


CLXVI 899 


CXCV 1494-1495 


Saec. X 


Saec. XVI 




Plate CLXVII 917-918 a. d. 


Plate CXCVI 


I556 A.D. 


Saec. XII 


CXCVII 


1595 


Plate CLXVIII 1198 a.d. 








PALESTINIAN 


Saec. XIII 






Plate CLXIX 1206-1207 a. d. 


Saec. XI 




CLXX 1217-1218 


Plate CXCVIII 


IO30 A. D. 


CLXXI 1218 


Saec. XII 




CLXXII 1222-1223 






CLXXIII 1259-1260 


Plate CXCIX 


1 104 A.D 



CLXXIV 1288-1289 


CC 


mo 



PLATE I 

411 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 50, fol. 154. 2 

The Clementine Recognitions; 3 Titus of Bostra, Four Discourses against 
the Manichaeans; Eusebius, On the Theophany; 4 id., On the Confessors 
of Palestine; id., A Eulogy of the Confessors' Virtue; 5 and a Martyrology. 

Vellum; 36.5 to 37 cm. X 28.4 to 28.6 cm.; 255 leaves; three columns; 
38 to 42 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black and brown; 
Estrangela. 6 The scribe's name was Jacob, and the manuscript was written 
in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the work of Titus 
of Bostra against the Manichaeans, Discourse IV. See P. A. de Lagarde, 
Titi Bostreni contra Manichaeos Libri Quatuor Syriace (Berlin, 1859), 
pp. 181 f. 



1 Second Teshrin, An. Graecorum 723. The day of the month is not given. This 
is probably the earliest dated codex in any language that is still extant. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac 
Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part II, pp. 631 ff. (No. 
DCCXXVI). The date is wrongly given here as 412 A. D. It is corrected to 411 
A. D. on page 1236 of Part III. 

3 There are four discourses (numbered 1, 3, 4, and 14) and a section entitled 
" From Tripolis in Phoenicia." 

4 This treatise is in five books. 

5 The title of this work is ^^ocoA\cv\Au:^3:i rdaaAcinn ^barto, 

6 \ and sometimes 3 have the Serta form. See supra, pp. 31 and 36. 



[52] 



411 A. D. 

.xi^po x££x<& ^cgsox^ 






Plate I 
• 5 ali^ r^V^m «79jj2»n 

^.^^ ^^^ 







«73jA£=3> 






London, British Museum 
Add. Ms. 12 ISO, folio 154 



Plate II 



459-460 A. D. 

''•S 






7 > 









'5 j ;, ■ £<*23 









rM 




s i 



^ 



%Wf3 



o 






tk ."v&t; 



• » 












* 





London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14512, folio 72 



PLATE II 

459-460 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 145 12, 



fol. 



72. 



Isaiah according to the Peshitta Version (i. e. the lower writing). 

Vellum; 21.6 to 22.1 cm. X 13.8 to 14.3 cm.; 54 leaves; 3 two columns; 
23 to 26 lines to the column; no trace of ruling discernible; ink brown; 
Estrangela; palimpsest. 4 A series of choral services for the principal festivals 
of the year, attributed to Ephraem Syrus and Jacob of Serug, 5 has been written 
over the text of Isaiah in a Serta hand of the tenth century. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Isaiah 16:8-17:2. 

1 An. Graecorum 771. If the month and the day of the month were given, they 
are no longer legible. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, pp. 250 f. (No. 
CCCXII); and E. Tisserant in the Revue Biblique, Nouvelle Serie, VIII, pp. 85 ff. 
The codex is composed of parts of three earlier manuscripts. The first (foil. 1-35) 
apparently contains discourses of Jacob of Serug, the second (foil. 36-66 and 125-144) 
was a volume of discourses, and the third (foil. 67-69, 72-88, and 91-124) contains 
the Peshitta text of Isaiah. The first two of these manuscripts are ascribed to the 
sixth or seventh century by Dr. Wright. See W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, p. 251. 

8 According to Dr. Wright the Isaiah manuscript consists of fifty-eight leaves. See 
W. Wright, op. cit, Part I, p. 251. However, folia 70, 71, 89, and 90 did not form 
part of this codex. See E. Tisserant in op. cit., Nouvelle Serie, VIII, p. 86. 

4 If the colophon contained the name of the scribe and that of the place where 
the manuscript was written, they have perished. 

5 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 



[53] 






> 



PLATE III 

462 A. D. 1 
Leningrad, Public Library, Cod. Syr. 1, New Series, fol. 11 4V. 2 

Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History. 

Vellum; 31 cm. X 23.5 cm.; 123 leaves; two columns; 23 to 34 lines to 
the column; 3 columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brownish black; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Isaac. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Eusebius's Eccle- 
siastical History, X, i, 4-ii, 1. See W. Wright and N. McLean, op. cit., 
pp. 389 f. 



1 Nisan, An. Graecorum 773. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright and N. McLean, The Ecclesiastical 
History of Eusebius in Syriac (Cambridge, 1898), pp. v f. The present writer has not 
seen this manuscript. For the data given above he is indebted to Mme. N. Pigulewsky 
of Leningrad. The photograph of fol. 11 4V. was obtained through the kindness of 
Dr. P. Jernstedt of the Asiatic Museum in the same city. 

3 According to Dr. Wright there are from 29 to 34 lines to the column. See W. 
Wright and N. McLean, op. cit., p. v. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written has been erased. 









[54] 




462 A. D. 
-;||fifc^ wQ*?*^ x^^\»*<X 



Plate III 



■1 

H : ^«a^ x^ru*v^. c\Hoa*T<^ 









_C7T>C 



.^< 






T^ 









v^Vcura 









<n=a 



t*£ *v**y*a . .\?w ^nVw 



:*: 



.t^Ats^v »«73ojc^0or\ r&a&k^: 





Leningrad, Public Library 
Cod. Syr. 1, New Series, folio 114v. 



Plate IV 



463-464 A. D. 



A/ickur^**^ 



a 



£i»03=nje_ 




T&\xr^r^£jaaee<T<S>A 








S5 



TV 



^i^ja^^^^i^^t^vAaprv 








•%*» 



%^tonk\cv • -^3C73 








.xClibO<73Cv-T^S\^^30e\ 




^*0<73^ -rrvc*> t ^^^ 



<mtn .<rx^cw^s\^^ 







jy 



-n 



PLATE IV 

463-464 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14425, fol. 95.* 

Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy according to the Peshitta 
Version. 

Vellum; 27.3 cm. X 21.6 to 21.8 cm.; 230 leaves; two columns; 25 to 
30 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The manuscript is the work of two copyists, one 
of whom wrote folia 1-115 (Genesis and Exodus) and the other folia 116- 
230 (Numbers and Deuteronomy). The first half of the codex was written 
by a deacon named John in the city of Amida. The colophon, which is in 
the handwriting of the first scribe, is at the end of Exodus. The date, the 
name of the copyist, and the name of the place where the second half was 
written are not given. The manuscript once belonged to the Convent of 
St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Exodus 28:4-14. 

1 An. Graecorum 775. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 3 ff. (No. III). 



[55] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14425, folio 95 



PLATE V 

473 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 160, fol. 68. 2 

The Life of Simeon Stylites; 3 and Cosmas the Priest, An Epistle to 
Simeon Stylites. 

Vellum; 22.5 to 22.6 cm. X 18.2 to 18.5 cm.; 79 leaves; two columns; 
23 to 30 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brownish; Estrangela. 4 This codex, which was brought to the 
Vatican Library from Nitria by Assemani, also contains two undated 
manuscripts. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Life of Simeon 
Stylites, 33. See S. E. Assemani, Acta Sanctorum Martyrum (Rome, 1748), 
Pars II, pp. 376 f. 

1 Nisan 17, An. Antiochensium 521. The Antiochian era began in 49 B. C; and, 
as in the SyroMacedonian year, September 1 was the first day of the year until the 
death of Julian the Apostate in 363 A. D. Thereafter, however, the Antiochian year, 
like the Seleucid, seems to have begun on October 1. See F. K. Ginzel, Handhuch 
der mathematischen und technischen Chronologic (Leipzig, 1906-19 14), III, pp. 31 f. 
and 43 f . 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, Bibliothecae Afosto- 
licae Vaticanae Codicum Manuscriftorum Catalogus (Rome, 1 756-1 759), Pars I, 
Tomus III, p. 319. 

3 The Life is entitled Exploits (c^lii^l) , and it is anonymous. Assemani mis- 
takenly ascribes it to Cosmas. See S. E. Assemani, Acta Sanctorum Martyrum (Rome, 
1748), Pars II, p. 227. See W. Wright, A Short History of Syriac Literature (London, 
1894), p. 56; and A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), 
p. 61. 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[56J 



473 A. D. 



Plate V 



Ay,. -^<^;^A\5*c\ 
©en *j\»r£e\ ^9^*=^ 

• ' * ■*• ' im- d 

«7a\ _uV&Vrc£c\ .^aviJn 
*Alt73 JW cpVoAVl 

OC73 ^W<V^>^- 
Ocn cnjJiiA crars ^^ 

■ 



^nC^ri coal r ^!^' 
octA ic73a J a\>^'n-=aOdn 

\-i\\<\ ^^ o°^ 



U — icuCks craSkv^AsA 

*nVfc&cvc7a\>a\ cn>AO^ 
Y^=y .\^.oa\ W0$ 

v£lttc\r& T=ao^i 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 160, folio 68 



Plate VI 



474 A. D. 






*>vr^ 



T» •TW'^x^k 














Cv 
*** *V*T\ LOcora CNCX73 

^7*** WrCS t£w?^- 












PLATE VI 

474 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 82 (foil. 1-99), fol. 14. 2 

Aphraates, Homilies I-X. s 

Vellum; 25.7 to 25.9 cm. X 20.5 to 21.2 cm.; 99 leaves; two columns; 
23 to 26 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black and brown; 
Estranged. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Aphraates's Homily 
II, §§ 5 fin. and 6. See W. Wright, The Homilies of Aphraates (London 
and Edinburgh, 1 869), pp. *»a. f . 

1 1161, An. Graecorum 785. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part II, pp. 403 f. (No. DXXIX). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 403. 

4 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[57] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17182 (foil. 1-99), folio 14 



509 A. D. 



Plate VII 



PLATE VII 

509 A. D, 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14542, fol. 40. 2 

Basil, On the Holy Spirit. 

Vellum; 24.5 cm. X 20 cm.; 94 leaves; two columns; 23 to 29 lines to 
the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black and brown; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Jacob, and he was probably a native or 
resident of Amida. 3 The manuscript was written in the Convent of TOi^^st. 
This is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Basil's work entitled 
Ilept rod dyiov TTvevpaTos, XIV, 33. For the Greek text see Migne, Pair. 
Gr. y XXXII, cols. 125 ff.; and C. F. H. Johnston, The Book of Saint Basil 
the Great on the Holy Spirit (Oxford, 1892). p. 72. 

1 Nisan 1 5, An. Graecorum 820. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 416 ff. (No. 
DXLVII). 

3 The scribe's name is followed by the word f^*ii3r£> which was probably meant 
for ^^3^. See W. Wright, oy. cit., Part II, p. 417. 



[58] 






«o^o© t^~^W%: 



o\va 



•ooo« 













»?1K)9 










London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14542, folio 40 



Plate VIII 



510-511 A. D. 




t^i^ua^i^c.t^tiW mioses. 






V*«T3 



»<13 






<VO<73 



>«3 






PLATE VIII 

510-51 1 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 26, fol. 24.* 

Philoxenus of Mabbug, Commentary on Matthew and on Luke 
(fragments). 

Vellum; 27.2 to 27.4 cm. X 17.2 to 17.4 cm.; 38 leaves; one column; 
26 to 28 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Mabbug. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the commentary of 
Philoxenus on Luke 2: 40. The commentaries of Philoxenus have appar- 
ently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 822. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 526 (No. 
DCLXXIV). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17126, folio 24 



[59] 



512 A. D. 



PLATE IX 

512 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17182 (foil. 100-175), f°l- I 34 v - 2 

Aphraates, Homilies XIII-XXII; 3 and id., The Treatise on the Cluster. 

Vellum; 25.9 cm. X 20.7 to 21 cm.; 76 leaves; two columns; 34 to 41 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black and 
brown; Estrangela. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Aphraates's Homily 
XIX, §§4 fin. and 5. See W. Wright, The Homilies of Aphraates (London 
and Edinburgh, 1869), pp. aicox. ff. 

1 Second Kanun, An. Graecorum 823. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part II, pp. 404 f. (No. 
DXXX). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 404. 

4 The title of this outline of Old Testament history is derived from Isaiah 65:8. 

5 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[60] 











*<mn *m t**^\a -^»* y-V*- 






Plate IX 

-^*»* .^*^<\ AsSs 1 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17182 (foil. 100-175), folio 134v. 



Plate X 



518 A. D. 



## 



J^t^ >XZr*^ ^^\* 
• »o. .•»o.^o\fl^fl\ 

I; t*^%=» ^<££? 



• ©• #< 



IV! 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14571, folio 64 



PLATE X 

518 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14571, fol. 64.* 

Ephraem Syrus, Sixteen Hymns on the Nativity; id., Ten Hymns on 
Lent; id., Two Hymns on the Lord's Supper; id., Six Hymns on the Cruci- 
fixion; id., Three Hymns on Palm Sunday; id., Two Hymns on the Tables 
of the Law; id., Six Hymns on Adam and Eve; id., Three Hymns on Long- 
suffering, Freewill, Grace, and Justice; id., Twenty-three Hymns on Various 
Subjects; id., Fifteen Hymns on Paradise; and id., Four Hymns on Julian 
the Apostate. 3 

Vellum; 23.9 to 24.3 cm. X 15.5 cm.; 114 leaves; two columns; 29 to 
37 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Julian, and he was an Edessene. 4 The 
manuscript once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Ephraem's Sermones 
adversus Scrutatores, No. XII. See Petrus Benedictus and S. E. Assemani, 
Sancti Patris Nostri Ephraem Syri Opera Omnia (Rome, 1 737-1 743), III 
(Syriace et Latine), pp. 26 f. 5 

1 Second Teshrin, An. Apameae 830. The day of the month is not given. The 
era of Apamea was the same as the Seleucid. See Chronicon Paschale ad Ol. 1 1 7, 3 = 
310 B.C. (ed. L. Dindorf [Bonn, 1832] I, p. 323): ano tovtw tw virdnav [Rullo et 

Rlltilio COns.J ij/r)<fii£ovTai rot err/ twv ^,vpOfjiaKeS6v(x)V, yyovv /cat 3 A.irafx£u>v, ct? to Trao^aAtv. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 410 ff. (No. 
DXXXIX). 

3 The subscription (on fol. 114) erroneously mentions five hymns on Julian. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

5 Petrus Benedictus, a member of the Society of Jesus, was a Maronite scholar 
whose Arabic name was Butrus Mubarrak. 



[61] 



PLATE XI 

522 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 1 1 1, fol. 1 i8v. 2 

Ephraem Syrus, Fifty-two Hymns on the Church; id., Fifty-one Hymns 
on Virginity; id., Eighty-seven Hymns on the Faith; id., Fifty-six Hymns 
against Heresies; and id., Fifteen Hymns on Paradise. 

Vellum; 31.5 cm. X 24.2 to 24.4 cm.; 142 leaves; three columns; 39 to 
46 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brownish; Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Ephraem's Sermones 
adversus Haereses, No. XXXVII. See Petrus Benedictus and S. E. As- 
semani, Sancti Patris Nostri Ephraem Syri Opera Omnia (Rome, 1737- 
1743), II (Syriace et Latine), pp. 522 ff. 4 

1 First Kanun 21, An. Graecorum 834. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. yj ff. 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 

4 Petrus Benedictus, a member of the Society of Jesus, was a Maronite scholar 
whose Arabic name was Butrus Mubarrak. 



[62] 




522 A. D. 

MC^\n *2D<!\^ *<?o*cv 

9fm ,%Mh m ^CoOa^ax^o 



•Aetf cV^cv cux« 
fen t^-ieva^^ 



Plate XI 



< r^^&*ms\ vtyfeiy 









(ta 



*<A*an<X3Sw-. crjj i^r\» r<^ 







V 



^a m ar , -i> ^wrSlXiya 

v \ 



fr-X^n vEnn^A t£»«*»cv 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. Ill, folio 118v. 



Plate Xn 



528 A. D. 



T%?* *^*» *W, 

* ^«m rsTcvmcv . ^cvai? 

1 ^4r *?"^i? 






•^V* 

•A*^ 



3 >^^?^^ >w oW% 



r&Xxjan 









D«UivU< 



a£5sc: , d3e; 



«V»"1 









PLATE XII 

528 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 140, fol. 95V. 2 

Paul of Callinicus, A Preface on the Manifold Meaning of Corruption; 
Julian of Halicarnassus, A Letter to Severus of Antioch; Severus of Antioch, 
A Reply to Julian of Halicarnassus; Julian of Halicarnassus, A Second Letter 
to Severus of Antioch; Severus of Antioch, A Reply to Julian of Halicarnas- 
sus; Julian of Halicarnassus, A Third Letter to Severus of Antioch; Severus 
of Antioch, A Letter to Julian of Halicarnassus; id., A Discourse addressed to 
Julian of Halicarnassus; Eight Questions of Heretics and the Defence of 
the Orthodox; 3 Severus of Antioch, A Letter to the Eastern Monks; id., 
A Book against the Appendix of Julian of Halicarnassus; Ten Anathemas of 
Julian of Halicarnassus and the Refutations of Severus of Antioch; 4 and 
Severus of Antioch, A Long Extract from the Philalethes. 5 

Vellum; 28.9 to 29 cm. X 22.9 to 23 cm.; 145 leaves; three columns; 
44 to 50 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brownish; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 6 
This is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the work of Severus 
of Antioch against the Appendix of Julian of Halicarnassus. The Greek 
original of this work is lost, and the Syriac translation has apparently not 
been published. 

1 Nisan, An. Graecorum 839. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 223 ff. 

3 For these questions see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, pp. 
227 f. 

4 For these anathemas see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
pp. 230 f . 

5 The colophon (on fol. 145V.) also mentions a work of Severus against the 
Manichaeans. 

6 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[63] 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 140, folio 95v. 



528-529 to 537-538 A. D. 



Plate XIII 



PLATE XIII 

528-529 to 537-538 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14459 (foil. 67-169), fol. 82. 3 

The Gospels of St. Luke and St. John according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 20 to 20.1 cm. X 12.4 to 12.7 cm.; 103 leaves; one column; 
25 to 27 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown 
and black; Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 6: 32-40. 

*Dr. Wright gives the year as . . . *jA^aTr<0 r£r<.2ni2a&\. See W. Wright, 
of. city Part I, p. 68. Since in all probability the Seleucid system of dating was 
used, the copying of the manuscript falls within the period 528-538 A. D. The 
present writer, however, was able to read only r^r^i^UioAi. The name of the month 
has perished; and if the day of the month was given, it also is lost. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part I, pp. 67 f . (No. 
CI). 

3 If the name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
were given, they have perished. 



^si^C^VT^ ***** 






. v**'-.^ 




*:«•'. 




** rr % 




* m 



H»... 






[64] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14459 (foil. 67-169), folio 82 



Plate XIV 



532 A. D. 



.tC* 








^ 



>TOOxiaar^T^iv>A 




s**n 7 r^Ky^ r^W£ 



•^&X* 







CUM 



^tUjkQXLTS^^ OsJ&^^O^O 



PLATE XIV 

532 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14445, fol. 15. 2 

Daniel according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.8 to 25.1 cm. X 19.3 to 19.5 cm.; 48 leaves; two columns: 
20 to 22 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black; Estrangela. 3 This is one of the codices which were brought to the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Daniel 3: 67-81. The Syriac text 
of the Song of the Three Holy Children is given in Walton's Polyglot 
(London, 1657), IV, Historia Susannae, etc., pp. n ff. 

1 lyar 28, An. Graecorum 843. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 26 f. (No. 
XLI). 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14445, folio 15 



[65J 



PLATE XV 

532 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 76, fol. 49. 2 

The Historia Monachorum. 

Vellum; 23 to 23.6 cm. X 14.4 to 14.9 cm.; 98 leaves; two columns; 
29 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Elias. 3 The manuscript once 
belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Historia Mona- 
chorum, XXI, 8-12. See E. Preuschen, Palladius und Rufinus (Giessen, 
1897), pp. 81 f. 

1 Haziran 14, An. Bostrenorum 427. The era of Bostra, which was also known 
as the Arabian or the Damascene era, began on March 22, 105 A. D. See F. K. 
Ginzel, Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie (Leipzig, 1906- 
19 14), III, pp. 34 and 49 f. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1072 f. (No. 
DCCCCXXIV). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written has perished. 



[66] 



532 A. D. 



Plate XV 









*•«». 



^a\«»4r*v^3S^o3 






^ 







*& 



****** ^<„ 

^<to^a -Sitae 
***>&*. resteer* 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17176, folio 49 



Plate XVI 



533-534 A. D. 



%.. €^cn .f^b*!w ^i ttfi'^y>a ^Goi«» .tjtftoflMKi 

^Mxr^ ^vr^cv-om »^!n ^uferv^ »m(^ *oi&it<^ 

"^^V^T^^ -nOo^nr^ o«n ^\r^ ,V«m ^a(ku 
♦ v&w U^>A «*>*W:*£* xncoT^a rs^cn m t^s 



t 

I 

i 



r* 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14479, folio 93v. 



PLATE XVI 

533-534 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14479, f°l* 93 v - 2 

The Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta 
Version. 

Vellum; 22.1 to 22.6 cm. X 13. 1 to 13.6 cm.; 101 leaves; one column; 
2 5 t0 33 li nes t0 the P a g e > columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Hebrews 7: 4-18. 

1 An. Graecorum 845. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, p. 86 (No. 
CXXXV). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[67] 



534 A. D. 



Plate XVII 



PLATE XVII 

534 A. D. 1 
Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, in paper folder No. 22, fol. 171. 2 

Palladius, The Historia Lausiaca. 3 

Vellum; 25.1 cm. X 16.9 cm.; 5 leaves; two columns; 29 to 32 lines to 
the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Estrangela. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Historia Lausiaca 
of Palladius, Chapter XVIII. For the Greek text see Dom C. Butler in 
Texts and Studies, VI, 2, pp. 52 f.; and Migne, Patr. Gr. y XXXIV, col. 1058. 

1 Hazlran 10, An. Graecorum 845. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 The title " Vita S. Macarii " is given on the paper folder. 

4 The latter part of the colophon has been erased. Hence if the name of the 
scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written were given, they have 
perished. 



[68] 



OJm Via** ^Tlaa^ 

?^=i ^Tooos ^»a<u 
If**** **Ak&i<A 

?^t3 ^WCUa 2SU*13CCv 




<mao*C\. m&an r Jl>a 
•oil .^^r^t^UA 



Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana 
in paper folder No. 22, folio 171 



Plate XVIII 



535 A. D. 



., <^L»VfA Anr» -^m x&sr» «i8^mc .« 






^ta^^^p;, rs^rA^ VW*» ^u<t«r> 




tA**'.; 









^**rSSx\ Ojaj^osn x&BLSte* t<^f<ig« 



^AS^^^^^ £ 



e 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14530, folio 66 



PLATE XVIII 

535 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14530, fol. 66. 2 

The Acts of the Second Council of Ephesus. 3 

Vellum; 22.3 to 22.5 cm. X 13.8 to 14 cm.; 108 leaves; one column; 
27 to 34 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was John, and the manuscript was written 
in the Convent of Mar Eusebius in rddvuart rdte^ near Apamea. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a letter written by 
Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus. 4 See J. Flemming, Akten der ephesinischen 
Synode vom Jahre 449 in Ahhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, Neue Folge, 
XV, p. 96. For an English translation see S. G. F. Perry, The Second Synod 
of Ephesus (Dartford, 1881), pp. 227 f. 

1 Iyar 10, An. Graecorum 846. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 1027 ff. (No. 
DCCCCV). 

3 For the various letters, actions, depositions, etc. contained in these Acts see W. 
Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 1027 ff. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate scriptural quotations. The biblical passages 
quoted are Acts 2: 22 and Isaiah 53: 3 f. (LXX). 



[69] 



540-541 A. D. 



Plate XIX 



PLATE XIX 

540-541 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 07, fol. 24V. 2 

Ezekiel according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 25.2 to 25.6 cm. X 19.9 to 20.3 cm.; 70 leaves; two columns; 
22 to 27 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brownish; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Ezekiel 18: 24-32. 

1 An. Graecorum 852. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, pp. 23 f. (No. 
XXXVIII). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



£>• A&r^*nV** -4 



>OQ* 



co» 




^y^ Xix^ r&m 






[70J 






nn 



^^ -McCx* Tvasrv 

T<Ull <rtf\ .OlT<\5 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17107, folio 24v. 



Plate XX 



548 A. D. 










* arm *^ccd <£\<7& 



"XVTVC73. \ V.\N-teT 



xps- r<<Sm xCw* 



ifS 



^v£^A*\^ 








Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 12, folio 15 v. 






PLATE XX 

548 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 12, fol. 15V.* 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 30.3 to 30.4 cm. X 23.6 cm.; 204 leaves; two columns; 22 to 
24 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black and 
brown; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 3 It has been 
much damaged by water or dampness. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 9: 18-28. 

1 Tammuz, An. Graecorum 859. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus 
II, pp. 27 ff . 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[71] 



PLATE XXI 

550-551 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 146 10, fol. 40V. 2 

Proclus of Constantinople, A Discourse on the Faith; Basil, A Homily on 
Deuteronomy XV, 9; Testimonies from the Writings of Gregory Thauma- 
turgus, Basil, John Chrysostom, and Proclus of Constantinople, which were 
read at the Council of Ephesus; A Collection of Canons; 3 John Chrysostom, 
The Second Epistle to Theodore and Three Discourses on the Prodigal Son; 
The Creed of Severus of Antioch; and Jacob of Serug, 4 Three Metrical 
Discourses 5 and a Funeral Sermon. 

Vellum; 25.1 to 25.7 cm. X 17 to 17.5 cm.; 87 leaves; two columns; 
26 to 33 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. 6 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Basil's Homily on 
Deuteronomy XV, 9, § 5. For the Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., XXXI, 
col. 209. 

1 On fol. 1 there is a table (t^-woA) for finding the days of various festivals, etc.; 
and this table begins with the Seleucid year 862. Hence the manuscript was probably 
copied in this year. The month and the day of the month in which it was finished are 
not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part II, pp. 638 f. (No. 
DCCXXVIII). 

3 For the titles of these canons see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 639. 

4 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

5 For the titles of these metrical discourses see W. Wright, op. cit, Part II, p. 639. 

6 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[72] 



550-551 A. D. 



Plate XXI 










^n oxen ^n Ax^naci 
•^Arvn r<xr^ t^v*i-n. ^> n 

^*^« ^ A? 

^^.X^^Va Wits* 
y&x\<\ .^»«u*a «jffi*£\_ 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14610, folio 40v. 



Plate XXII 



552 A. D. 







•Sri ^73 Y>^ ^ncnci 
&icnse-*' OC73 3*^ •>**** 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 112, folio 46 



PLATE XXII 

552 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 112, fol. 46.* 

Ephraem Syrus, Hymns. 3 

Vellum; 24.4 to 24.5 cm. X 15.5*0 15.6 cm.; 93 leaves; one column; 22 
to 26 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Barlaha, and he was an Edessene. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Ephraem's First 
Hymn on the Nativity. See Petrus Benedictus and S. E. Assemani, Sancti 
Patris Nostri Ephraem Syri Opera Omnia (Rome, 1 737-1 743), II (Syriace 
et Latine), p. 40 1. 5 

1 Shebat 20, An. Graecorum 863. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 79 ff. 

8 The codex contains thirty hymns— fifteen on Paradise and fifteen on the Nativity. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. However, 
the scribe lived in Sarmin; and he wrote the manuscript for the Convent of Mar 
Daniel in vvlax. 

5 Petrus Benedictus, a member of the Society of Jesus, was a Maronite scholar 
whose Arabic name was Butrus Mubarrak. 



[73] 



PLATE XXIII 

553 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12166 (foil. 155-258), fol. 194V. 2 

Cyril of Alexandria, On Worship in Spirit and in Truth (Books IX-XII). 
Vellum; 26.5 to 27 cm. X 21 to 21.4 cm.; 104 leaves; three columns; 
27 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brown; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Cyril's work entitled 
TLepl rrjs kv TrvevfAaTi koI dXrjdeia irpoo-Kwrjcrecos /cat Aarpetas, X, 349 f. 4 
For the Greek text see Migne, Pair. Gr. 7 LXVIII, cols. 685 ff. 



1 llul 30, An. Graecorum 864. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 491 f. (No. 
DCXX). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate scriptural quotations. The biblical passages 
quoted are Leviticus 4: 6-12 and John 14: 30. 



[74] 



V" 



553 A. D. 

»oa\ . rc^cui^a 
•0.0 «>»Qa«g\ 



Plate XXIII 



* ^ » >cncw*jncucu 



Ar^\ ^»vn -to;u3< 

trifle y^sin^^ 
tj&aVja cnv=r» xcn&i * 

*<*^aT<M=yi£r3 Av 4 

^ fl ^ «aajtoacv< 
7^o 3 -HCta3<A akCi< 




3>rA v<jTO *to>W< 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12166 (foil. 155-258), folio 194v. 



Plate XXIV 



557 A. D. 



racv 



*^*V»AnJar^ revise- 
Ap* .r^<\o3 ^.-t,^ 

#^^ -^ 












London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14558, folio 89v. 



PLATE XXIV 

557 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14558, fol. 89V. 2 

John Chrysostom, Commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew (Homilies 
I-XVI). 

Vellum; 23.5 to 23.7 cm. X 15.7 to 16.1 cm.; 171 leaves; two columns; 
28 to 32 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black; Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Chrysostom's Com- 
mentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew, Homily X, 2. 4 For the Greek text 
see Migne, Patr. Gr., LVII, col. 186. 

1 Nisan 5, An. Graecorum 868. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 466 f. (No. 
DLXXXIII). 

3 The name of the scrihe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate a scriptural quotation. The biblical passage 
quoted is Acts 19: 4. 



[75] 






PLATE XXV 

563 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 143, fol. 93.* 

Severus of Antioch, Homiliae Cathedrales (Adyoi *Eandp6vioi), CI- 

cxxv. 

Vellum; 24.9 to 25 cm. X 16 to 16.2 cm.; 184 leaves; two columns; 34 
to 37 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Severus's Homily No. 
CXVI. 4 This homily has apparently not been published. 

1 Ab, An. Graecorum 874. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit. y Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 246 ff. 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. However, the codex was copied in the days of Mar George, who was 
abbot of the Convent of Mar John in Nairab; and the manuscript was probably 
written either there or in that neighbourhood. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate a scriptural quotation. The biblical passage 
quoted is Ezekiel 44: 18, which occurs twice in slightly varying forms. In the first 
case ^\na presupposes the LXX ftia, and in the second r^A^cu^ represents 
the Hebrew yV2. The sentence is omitted in the Peshitta. 



[76] 



563 A. D. 



Plate XXV 




.y&i^o nan 



\ 



• J VM^£ 3^2u\ ^lu*x» 



3. 
3 









<#p&r 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 143, folio 93 



Plate XXVI 



564 A. D. 



**«W 



VfrHtF* <sC1La»9 T^VkS* 
r^WOCfiD ^MU90 ^a£©9 







0*9 fvO^ft S -. •^. 
Vbt^9 teV*90^09, **»?* 



^ r? 



. \ / .. 

Ofc»*V»fC T<JKxkkr3 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 137, folio 45 



PLATE XXVI 

564 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 137, 



fol. 45- 2 



Philoxenus of Mabbug, On the Trinity and the Incarnation (three 
treatises). 

Vellum; 24.5 cm. X 15.9 to 16.2 cm.; 162 leaves; two columns; 31 to 
33 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the work of Philoxe- 
nus On the Trinity and the Incarnation, Treatise II (Quintum: Sententia 
Alia). See Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, Scriptores Syri, 
Series Secunda, Tomus XXVII, pp. 79 f. (Syriac text). 



1 Nisan 20, An. Graecorum 875. Cardinal Tisserant and the present writer 
were able to read the words: ^10 <<r^a°±a* • • xra . <<!r^3XS3& duxrj 
££OuCi a^^iO is given by the Assemanis. See S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., 

Pars I, Tomus III, p. 218. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 217 f. 

3 3 ^ co ; O f and ^ have the Serta form. See supra, pp. 31, 32, 33, and 36. If the 
colophon contained the name of the scribe and that of the place where the manu- 
script was written, they have perished. 



[77] 



564 A. D. 



Plate XXVII 



PLATE XXVII 

564 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 104, fol. 13V. 2 

Athanasius, On the Incarnation; and Timothy of Alexandria, A Homily. 

Vellum; 22.9 cm. X 14.8 to 15 cm.; 87 leaves; one column; 21 to 24 
lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named John, an Edessene; and the 
manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Cyriacus (r^nion). 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Athanasius's work 
entitled Aoyog irepl rfjs ivavOpcoTrrjcrecos tov Aoyov kcu tt}s Slol ctco/jlcltos 77/069 
rj/xas iirLefxiveias avrov, 8. For the Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr. y XXV, 
col. 109. 

1 Ab, An. Graecorum 875. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of, cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 29 ff. 










[78] 



rO^» r^atf\ ><n»\>v* J^no 

^W* W<^o^ T&bdnk* 
™sm oto ^W^t 



rC=a ^ crrvsi^ ^cxnrs <\<ih 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 104, folio 13 v. 






Plate XXVIII 



565 A. D. 






rw-i 



r&o\>* 



6(H Jew 









PLATE XXVIII 

565 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 57, fol. 75.* 

Jacob of Serug, 3 Metrical Discourses. 4 

Vellum; 21.9 to 22.1 cm. X 13.8 to 14.1 cm.; 118 leaves; two columns; 
23 to 29 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brown; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 5 This 
is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara 
in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Jacob's metrical 
discourse On the Ten Virgins. See P. Bedjan, Homiliae selectae Mar-Jacobi 
Sarugensis (Paris and Leipzig, 1905-1910), II, pp. 385 f. 

1 Shebat, An. Graecorum 876. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Of. cit., Part II, pp. 504 f. (No. 
DCXXXVI). 

3 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

4 The codex once contained ten discourses, of which eight have survived. For the 
titles of them see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 504 f. 

5 The name of the scribe is not given. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17157, folio 75 






[79] 






PLATE XXIX 

569 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14599, fol. 32.* 

Severus of Antioch, Homiliae Cathedrales (Adyot 'JbmOpovioi), XXXI- 
LIX. 3 

Vellum; 25.3 to 26.1 cm. X 16.6 to 17.2 cm.; 194 leaves; two columns; 
28 to 32 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink black; 4 Estrangela. The scribe's name was Anastasius. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Severus's Homily 
No. XXXVI. 6 This homily has apparently not been published. 

1 lyar, An. Graecorum 880. The day of the month is not given. The year is also 
given as 617 of the era of Antioch, which is equivalent to An. Graecorum 880. The 
Antiochian era began in 49 B. C.; and, as in the Syro-Macedonian year, September 1 
was the first day of the year until the death of Julian the Apostate in 363 A. D. 
Thereafter, however, the Antiochian year, like the Seleucid, seems to have begun on 
October 1 . See F. K. Ginzel, Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chrono- 
logie (Leipzig, 1906-19 14), III, pp. 31 f. and 43 f. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 546 ff. (No. 
DCLXXXVI). 

3 This version, which is older than that of Jacob of Edessa, may have been made by 
Paul of Callinicus. 

4 On some of the leaves the ink has faded to a brownish colour, but it is pre- 
dominantly black throughout the codex. 

5 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

6 The marks in the margin indicate a scriptural quotation. The words marked 
are a conflation of I Corinthians 15: 45, 47, and John 1 : 29. 



[80] 



569 A. D. 



Plate XXIX 



*<***-* Sin*** 

tfabi r£»<b<vr£ ^a 

rs^u^a Tu^r^cra 



c\\ev - >cn<a&\»\^ 
x£±*r< T^iM^ ^a 

yajrtti ^a A 
A,r£cu>aS>n «n^ 

r^ovja^ r^Mci^yaA 
^Ua-icS\ t<Sa\>4€\ 

^lnja€\£ -irvAc 

T^Ja*in^a cns2ya*n 
^^ cms* .tAuLm 
Y^6o*r£a oafirj 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14599, folio 32 



Plate XXX 



569 A. D. 



r^W -\V^p kuV 

^^.^ *^* 
*»<X«» »A\Vvv aoxn 
»^-£«»ff\ck ^o oik 

^ 'Sea .-\ dOsCV .*<iv\^ 
^A*in rnVva <so>m 

t<jci-\ i<^»i X>^ .\*>Tiy . 



^^ »^oa\ t^aqi 
*^ l^i Ss»^ 

v^ -^^_ *fta? 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14597, folio 162 



PLATE XXX 

569 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14597, fol. 162. 2 

Gregory of Nyssa, The Great Catechetical Discourse; Philoxenus of 
Mabbug, A Letter to the Chaste Monks of Senun; id., Twelve Chapters 
against Those Who maintain Two Natures in Christ and One Person; id., 
Twenty Chapters against Nestorius; id., Ten Chapters against Those Who 
divide Our Lord after the Indivisible Union; Julius of Rome, The Fifth 
Epistle concerning the Union (of the Two Natures) in Christ and of the 
Body compounded with the Deity of God the Word; Gregory Thaumatur- 
gus, The Faith in Parts; 3 id., A Discourse addressed to Philagrius on the 
Consubstantiality of the Son; Selections from the Historia Monachorum; 4 
A Commentary on Ecclesiastes, XII, 1-7; John Chrysostom, A Discourse on 
Wealth and Poverty; id., A Prayer; The History of the Exploits of Paul the 
Bishop and of John the Priest; and The Victory of the Excellent Life of 
Serapion. 

Vellum; 25.8 to 26.3 cm. X 16.9 to 17.6 cm.; 190 leaves; two columns; 
32 to 38 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in the village 
of Sarmin. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from The Victory of the 
Excellent Life of Serapion. See P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum 
(Paris and Leipzig, 1 890-1 897), V, pp. 277 f. 

1 tyar, An. Graecorum 880. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, oj?. cit., Part II, pp. 648 ft. (No. 
DCCXXX). 

3 This is the Syriac translation of Gregory's work entitled 'H Kara fjulpos irioris. 

4 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 650. See also Dom C. Butler in 
Texts and Studies, VI, 1, p. 93. 

5 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[81] 



581 A. D. 



Plate XXXI 



PLATE XXXI 

581 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17169, fol. 114. 3 

John of Lycopolis, 3 A Letter to Theodulus; id., A Letter to Eutropius and 
Eusebius on the Spiritual Life; id., Four Discourses on the Soul and on 
the Distinction of the Passions of Men; id., A Discourse on Matthew V, 4; 
id., A Discourse shewing how a Man may be without Pride and Ostentation 
and Pomp and the Impulses of Arrogance; id., Another Discourse on the 
Same Subject; id., A Letter to a Convent of Recluses on the Peace of the 
Creation from the Offences Which were in It; id., A Discourse on the 
Dispensations of God; and id., A Letter to a Convent of His Friends on the 
Maintenance of Love. 

Vellum; 26.8 to 27 cm. X 21 to 21.5 cm.; 126 leaves; two columns; 27 
to 3 1 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Sergius. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a letter of John of 
Lycopolis addressed to a convent of recluses On the Peace of the Creation 
from the Offences Which were in It. This letter has apparently not been 
published. 

1 Haziran, An. Graecorum 892. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit, Part II, pp. 450 ff. (No. 
DLXXII). 

3 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cure ton, Corf us Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[82] 



****** rdwcaw. Av 
J'te 9 ^T<A .^^3 



«a 



^ 







r<x** ^vcwsa AW, 






* Cfc» 



***£*• »«*<v«kn ^na^A 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17169, folio 114 



Plate XXXII 



581 A. D. 



•i! i >i ^J^^r<r >£sa^e> 



rdi'v^ xntkKM *^a\*~. 

r*~*T<?^ '.racC^cs .t<^jA 
y*"Vka r^v>A craV> ,r*><\ 



^ «\ar^S w%<\£j\an 

^>» «^=* vs^n^ ^ 
-sacsVtN .^^2^ r<r«ir*Vv^ 

*<^«o ^^ .Vut^ 

•^cuorj^ r<li»r r^a^ 
r<ir^S ^Vr^^ VaAai^ 






V^r<^ C^oicv^ ^acincv 



•pO>53n ^=3^V^ ^CN^XN 

j-oaccav^ VvcJi r^^nte** 

**Z?*X'&\ *TX*^rv^ ^3cV\^ 

. >=» fcSar^c^ >»^<=3 rir^ 

-sac\V\c\ .>=a >rix<&^. 

r^Vi^ac— • Vunr^ >^*'** 
Vv^cTxn x<^*r^. vr^krxsu 



^ 



*\r\£fc ><no\^ .r^=at^ ^- T^* 



r^c cuccra ^x^c^^ -^ A^.^^or- *A 






• s&^r^cv aat^ 






^n^.oo^i^ 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 138, folio 107 



PLATE XXXII 

581 A.D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 138, fol. 107. 2 

Philoxenus of Mabbug, Ten Discourses on the Thesis that One Person 
of the Holy Trinity became incarnate and suffered. 

Vellum; 31 to 31.1 cm. X 24.3 to 24.6 cm.; 136 leaves; three columns; 
38 to 42 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the above-mentioned 
work of Philoxenus, Discourse X. The work has apparently not been 
published. 

1 Tammiiz 30, An. Graecorum 892. The colophon (on fol. 136) is now illegible, 
and after several attempts the present writer was unable to decipher the date. The 
latter was doubtless legible in the time of the Assemanis, and it is given here as it was 
read by them. See S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit. y Pars I, Tomus III, p. 221. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 218 ff. 

8 If the colophon contained the name of the scribe and that of the place where the 
manuscript was written, they have perished. 



[83] 



PLATE XXXIII 

584 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12160 (foil. 1-108), fol. 74V. 2 

John Chrysostom, Commentary on 1 Corinthians (Homilies XXXIV- 
XLIV). 

Vellum; 24.9 to 25.6 cm. X 16.2 to 17.4 cm.; 108 leaves; two columns; 
32 to 34 lines to the column; columns' and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Thomas, an 
Edessene; and the manuscript was written in the Convent of Gubba Barr&ya 
(^»"to t^ao^J. The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Chrysostom's Com- 
mentary on 1 Corinthians, Homily XL, 4. For the Greek text see Migne, 
Patr. Gr., LXI, cols. 352 f. 

1 Tammuz 29, An. Graecorum 895. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 472 f. (No. 
DXC). 



[84] 



584 A. D. 



^r^ .^ant^n ..%.T<£nsr»t«* 



Plate XXXIII 



t<1 r^.rAxoana ma 



^J*3 :*»a:\ ^j^ kw 
t<^<n ^rvevcis r^atiX. 

\*j\ r<cn -t<xxn 
**ccn ^ai t^^ict^n 
molci t^»«cn t^stnso, 

1A, f^vj .tvVs\ even 
rCSa^ -^lA^a t^ciansk 



T<V\ f^Cn A*2kCT3 

^^ <ha fc\»r6\ 
'^J^? 1 ^ ™ t^aenn"n 

'.r£aa» t<A^ Macn 
^•n t^cicn . ir\»t< 

:jaaa r^<^$a t<^w 
JUr^ «ac\a\ r^ra«iai>j 

v *Ac\a^ r^cn :\<\*Aa 
^\v€r< »^aL .axjj^u 

r<±r€ .^Szn xtVAgi 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12160 (foil. 1-108), folio 74v. 



Plate XXXIV 



586 A. D. 







4rvcA cm Ayc^ 




carlo 



■ W*v 




SI 



£ 



^jc^n cm aacn 



r^ 




errs* 



1&3 




^! 



^r^^Ji 







.CTE3- 








oc7X3n>AOicacn otto 






Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana 
Plut. I, Cod. 56, folio 99 



PLATE XXXIV 

586 A. D. 1 
Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Plut. I, Cod. 56, fol. 99. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 33.6 to 33.8 cm. X 26.7 to 27.9 cm.; 292 leaves; two columns; 
18 to 20 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brownish; Estrangela; miniatures. 3 The scribed name was Rab- 
bula, and the manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar John in Beth- 
Zagba. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 2: 28-3: 7. 

1 At the time of full moon (^T^fln'Vn) in the month of Shebat, An. Grae- 
corum 897. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. Assemani, Bibliothecae Mediceae Lauren- 
tianae et Palatinae Godicum Manuscriftorum Orientalium Catalogus (Florence, 
1742), pp. 1 ff. (No. I); and A. M. Biscione, Bibliothecae Mediceo-Laurentianae 
Catalogus (Florence, 1752), pp. 44 fF. 

3 For engravings of these miniatures see S. E. Assemani, op. cit., Tabb. I-XXVI 
(following p. 49). See also Ch. Diehl, L 'art chretien frimitif et Mart byzantin (Paris 
and Brussels, 1928), Plate XXVII; A. M. Friend, Jr., ' The Portraits of the Evangelists 
in Greek and Latin Manuscripts/ Part II, in Art Studies, 1929, Plates I-IV; and C. 
Nordenfalk, Die sfdtantiken Kanontafeln (Goteborg, 1938), Tafelband, Taf. 129-148. 
See also supra, pp. 20 f . 



[85] 



PLATE XXXV 

593 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 52, fol. 30V. 2 

John Chrysostom, Commentary on 1 and 2 Thessalonians (Homilies 
I-XI and I-V). 

Vellum; 25.6 to 25.9 cm. X 17 to 17.5 cm.; 120 leaves; two columns; 
32 to 35 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was John, and he was an Edessene. 3 
This is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Chrysostom's Com- 
mentary on 1 Thessalonians, Homily IV, 3/ For the Greek text see Migne, 
Patr.Gr. ,1X11, cols. 418 f. 

1 First Kanun 4, An. Graecorum 905. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 477 f. (No. 
DXCVI). 

3 The name of the convent where the manuscript was written has been erased. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate a scriptural quotation. The biblical passage 
quoted is 1 Thessalonians 3: 10. 



[86] 



593 A. D. 



Plate XXXV 



t<^»r^ • *£<ia\rc£ 
i6=& i4\*£ .^ut^i ^Mt^ 

*-T3njb T^even^r% tt\ 

~ 23 ' 3 -cvcvcn nckciMKi. 
t^mcua\iaa aAoaa 



•^ <A t^oaWna 
t<^Nl\riT >rt-icn a&ss\ 

crAoass •.m.^tSaosja 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17152, folio 30v. 



Plate XXXVI 



598-599 A. D. 



•^i JW£ ma Wa oskHftC 




^^mca'ioe-cA^ <K&tta 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17102, folio llv. 



PLATE XXXVI 

598-599 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17102, fol. nv. 2 

Joshua according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 22.7 to 23 cm. X 14. 1 to 14.5 cm.; 60 leaves; one column; 19 to 
23 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown and 
black; Estrangela. 3 The manuscript once belonged to the Convent of Anba 
Bishoi in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Joshua 8: 5-12. 

1 An. Graecorum 910. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, pp. 1 1 f . (No. 
XVII). 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[87] 



PLATE XXXVII 

603 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14587, fol. 51. 2 

Jacob of Serug, 3 Thirty-four Letters 4 and Six Prose Discourses. 5 
Vellum; 24.1 to 24.7 cm. X 15.9 to 17 cm.; 137 leaves; two columns; 
29 to 41 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. 6 The manuscript once belonged to the Con- 
vent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a letter of Jacob 
addressed to Antiochus, Simeon, Samuel, John, Sergius, and Ignatius, who 
were priests and abbots. 7 This letter has apparently not been published. 

1 Ilul, An. Graecorum 914. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 517 s. (No. 
DCLXXII). 

3 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

4 For the addressees or subjects of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 518 ft. 
One of the letters (No. 12) was sent to Jacob by the monks of the Convent of Bassus, 
and several are mutilated. 

5 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 523. 

6 The name of the scribe has been erased, and that of the place where the manu- 
script was written is not given. 

7 The marks in the margin indicate a scriptural quotation. The biblical passage 
quoted is Ezekiel 44: 2. 



[88] 



603 A. D. 

•Jan •j*W<i^o'^ | 



Plate XXXVn 









$*^ ^b? *A<* 
*V** -W* •'UMtf <. 

■3* .^ **** 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14587, folio 51 



Plate XXXVni 



604 A. D. 






wen ot^ir\2Ji,r^ *^A t^&oa.oA 









-Up 




^V« ^ -*it^ *kt *n 1 

^pr6\ t£*iH3 ^^ *V*rf* » 
^0aw*SLt^»S^\ "J -2 * 3 ^ ^ 1 






•VN^LldV' 






PLATE XXXVIII 

604 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 70 (foil. 1-135), fol. 65* 

Isaiah the Younger, 3 Works of Various Sorts. 4 

Vellum; 31 to 31.2 cm. X 23.4 to 23.7 cm.; 135 leaves; three columns; 
25 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black; Estrangela. 5 This is one of the codices which were brought to the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Isaiah's discourse 
entided De Gaudio Animae Deo servientis (Oratio XVII, Sections V and 
VI). For the Latin text see Migne, Pair. Gr., XL, col. 1 149. 

1 Tammuz 15, An. Graecorum 915. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 458 ff. (No. 
DLXXV). 

3 The author of the works contained in this codex was formerly thought to be an 
Egyptian monk named Isaiah, who flourished in the fourth century after Christ. But 
it is now generally agreed that he was a younger monk of the same name, who passed 
his life partly in Egypt and partly in Palestine. Isaiah the Younger died in 488 A. D. 
See K. Ahrens and G. Kriiger, Die sogenannte Kirchengeschichte des Zacharias Rhetor 
(Leipzig, 1899), pp. 385 f.; G. Kriiger in the Bymntinische Zeitschrift, VIII, p. 303, 
note 1; and O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur (second ed., 
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1913-1924), IV, pp. 95 ff. 

4 The codex contains nineteen discourses, three collections of precepts, three col- 
lections of sayings, one collection of extracts from the Scriptures, one lament, and one 
letter. For the titles of these works see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 458 ff. 

5 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[89] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12170 (foil. 1-135), folio 65 



PLATE XXXIX 

6n A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 35 (foil. 44-207), foL 162. 2 

Cyril of Alexandria, The Thesaurus concerning the Holy and Consub- 
stantial Trinity (Assertiones I-XX). 

Vellum; 25.7 to 26 cm. X 16.7 to 17.4 cm.; 164 leaves; two columns; 
29 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Severus. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Cyril's Thesaurus 
concerning the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity, Assertio XV. 4 For the 
Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., LXXV, cols. 261 ff. 

1 Ilul 1 1 , An. Graecorum 922. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 486 f . (No. 
DCXIII). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

4 The marks in the margin indicate scriptural quotations. The biblical passages 
quoted are Psalms 101 : 19 (LXX) and 50: 12 (LXX) and Ephesians 2:15 and 4: 24. 



[90] 



611 A. D. 



Plate XXXIX 



-Tans* £artoai; 






*>Qloa .Ay y^^j^^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12135 (foil. 44-207), folio 162 



Plate XL 



613-614 A. D. 






S 



i 




Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana 
in paper folder No. 20, folio 22 2 v. 



: ; ? 



I 

..*";■ 




PLATE XL 

613-614 A.D. 1 
Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, in paper folder No. 20, fol. 222V. 2 

The End of a Codex. 

Vellum; 18.8 to 19.1 cm. X 14.3 cm.; 3 detached leaves; one column; 
20 lines to the page; top lines ruled with lead; 3 ink black; Estrangela. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is part of an anti-Nestorian work. 
It has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 925. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 These leaves have not been described more fully. They were numbered when 
the codex was still intact. 

3 Probably the columns also were ruled, but no trace of such ruling remains. 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[91] 



PLATE XLI 

615 A.D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 69, fol. 137. 2 

John Chrysostom, Commentary on Ephesians (Homilies I-XXIV). 

Vellum; 26 cm. X 17.5 cm.; 177 leaves; two columns; 30 to 35 lines to 
the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 3 The manu- 
script once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Chrysostom' s Com- 
mentary on Ephesians, Homily XX, 5. For the Greek text see Migne, 
Patr. Gr., LXII, col. 141. 

1 Ab 1, An. Graecorum 926. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, Catalogues des manuscrits 
syriaques et sabeens (mandaltes) de la Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, 1874), PP« 36 f. 

3 The name of the scribe is not given, and that of the place where the manuscript 
was written has been erased. 



[92] 



615 A. D. 



Plate XLI 




'mfi 









•**ml ;&sm **»k\ 













Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 69, folio 137 



Plate XLII 



621-622 A. D. 



>Wi^^.^^^^*^ 






0^<n 

^ cycrA r^\<73 W*<^ ^W ^v\<n 

t<W -^cA r<Sv^ ~%~ ^ 
rs^Wr\» t^=3<v>a •^c^Vvtn .-^^ 

rA> .^og\"^ AAr* / i% »^ 3 r^r^ 
<v>k . ^svsJSk— x-^V^x* -w**&r\ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14478, folio 55 



PLATE XLII 

621-622 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14478, fol. 55." 

The Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta 
Version. 

Vellum; 23 cm. X 14.1 cm.; 143 leaves; one column; 23 to 28 lines to 
the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black and brown; 
Estrangela. 3 This is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent 
of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is 2 Corinthians 1 : 24-2: 7. 

1 An. Graecorum 933. The month and the day of the month are not given. On 
the fact that no dated Syriac manuscripts are extant which were written between 
621-622 and 682 A. D. see supra, p. 45. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 90 ff. (No. 
CXLI). 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[93] 



PLATE XLIII 

682 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14666, fol. 56. 2 

The End of a Codex which contained the Pauline Epistles (including 
Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 17 cm. X 12.5 cm.; 1 leaf; 3 one column; 32 lines to the page; 
columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Estrangela. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Hebrews 12: 28-13: 20. 

1 An. Graecorum 993. The manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 63, which began 
on September 10, 682 A. D., and ended on August 29, 683 A. D. Therefore the codex 
was finished between September 10 and September 30, 682 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part I, p. 92 (No. CXLII). 

3 This leaf contains Hebrews 12: 28-13: 25. 

4 If the colophon contained the name of the scribe, the latter has perished; as has 
also the name of the place where the manuscript was written. 



[94J 



682 A. D. 



Plate XLni 








>rjtn 



*%^r&<iiu 'ypua t&abna % «j£ 







7* 



••• 



{.fM 



'SH 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14666, folio 56 



Plate XLIV 



688 A. D. 



rdcncu n&o •<nn5*a . 
# <na^ r&ui&rC^craa 
V^ci .i^V\'cn # ijin^ 
«<n nA .r&nor£a 

oVrd rdSLrC ,i<i»U 
<nw^ rCcicn rCnnst 

r£ricii<a ore* .cn^^. 

Kn% KV-^ rs^crana 
» Vv . ^uSu tlA. •triers 

, • asflcixauta^q ensaa* 
&Kta»O0 










rCia*rC *K^<\n tiaan 

*-A<\aca ma^ Aawi 

•i<evcra ^mVv09 ^ii3 

*l~«»«nl<iart i<*a»rC 

ka.-<natfis severs »Aan 




oila. f »0*aa»fC UsMO 

t<ioaa <n= ^» ^^ 
«K*c\<n AM&tu f^&inT 

<wna>i A^nm* itfa«a 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14647, folio 117 



PLATE XLIV 

688 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14647, fol. 117. 2 

John of Ephesus, 3 Lives of Eastern Saints; 4 Eight Chapters on Various 
Subjects; 5 Two Lives of Saints; and A Martyrdom. 6 

Vellum; 28.5 to 28.8 cm. X 18.3 to 18.9 cm.; 171 leaves; two columns; 
35 to 44 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Serguna («Tioi^ ( jta). 7 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Life of Jacob 
Baradaeus. See J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1 862-1 875), 
II, pp. 251 f. 

1 Adar, An. Graecorum 999. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1094 ff. (No. 
DCCCCXLV). 

3 He was bishop of Ephesus or Asia, and he was also known as John of Asia. 

4 There are fifty-one lives of men and women and two accounts of monasteries. 
For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1094 ff. Nos. 27, 28, and 
29 are lost; and of No. 51 only the first few words of the title are preserved. The 
collection was compiled by John of Ephesus. 

5 These are probably taken from the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus. 
For the titles of them see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1098 f. 

6 The two lives of saints and the martyrdom were not written by John of Ephesus. 
For the titles of them see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, p. 1099. 

7 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[95] 







PLATE XLV 

697 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 34, fol. 20. 2 

Exodus according to the Version of Paul of Telia. 

Vellum; 25.7 to 26.1 cm. X 17.2 cm.; 134 leaves; one column; 20 to 24 
lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Lazarus. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Exodus 5: 10-14. 

1 Shebat, An. Graecorum 1008. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 29 ff. (No. 
XLIX). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[96] 



697 A. D. 



Plate XLV 



r&aX h\& torn jbatA: cnLri 



•«3>*u^ t<ba<*** j£3^fe 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12134, folio 20 



Plate XLVI 



698 A. D. 








lii?v^$*<^ 











■Syfefc 






*4 . 



">,"S '•"'-*•''»■ 










Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent 
Cod. Syr. 30, folio 32v. 



PLATE XLVI 

698 A. D. 1 
Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent, Cod. Syr. 30, fol. 32V. 2 

Select Narratives of Holy Women (a martyrology); An Apology for the Faith; 
The Book of Susan; The Martyrdom of Cyprian the Magician and of Justa the Virgin; 
and The Abodes of Paradise from the Madrashe of Mar Ephraem Syrus (i. e. the 
upper writing). 

Vellum; 21.9 cm. X 15.9 cm.; 182 leaves; one column; 22 to 28 lines to the page; 
columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela; palimpsest. 
The scribe was an anchorite and stylite named John, and the manuscript was probably 
written in a convent at Ma'arrath Mesren in the district of Antioch. 3 The vellum used 
was taken from five older codices, 142 leaves being supplied by a manuscript con- 
taining the Four Gospels in the Old Syriac version. This codex is written in an 
Estrangela hand of the fifth century. Of the other manuscripts two are Syriac, one 
being of the fifth and the other of the fifth or sixth century; and two are Greek, one 
being of the fourth or fifth and the other of the sixth century or earlier. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Select Narratives of Holy 
Women, being the Acts and Martyrdom of the Blessed Eugenia and her Father Philip. 
See A. S. Lewis, Select Narratives of Holy Women y Studia Sinaitica, No. IX (London, 
1900), pp. v> f. The lower writing is Luke 22: 59-23: 1. 



1 Tammuz 3, An. Graecorum 1009. The colophon reads .v.y&q SiAr^f r^AuxiD 
and immediately after the last word there is a hole in the vellum. Dr. J. Rendel Harris 
conjectured that the letters *& had perished at this point, and Mrs. A. S. Lewis and 
Professor F. C. Burkitt accepted this conjecture. See R. L. Bensly, J. R. Harris, and 
F. C. Burkitt, The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest 
(Cambridge, 1894), p. xv; F. C. Burkitt, Evangelion da-Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 
1904), II, p. 18; and A. S. Lewis, The Old Syriac Gospels (London, 1910), p. x. In 
this case the upper writing was finished on the third of Tammuz, An. Graecorum 1090, 
i. e. 779 A. D. Professor Bensly's opinion that the writing in question was the work of 
an eighth century hand made Dr. Harris's conjecture seem probable. Later, however, 
Mrs. Lewis put forward the view that a flourish once occupied the space where the 
hole now is. y roiCI is near the end of the line, and the scribe would not have begun 
the long word Gacnrum^Ar^lt, which stands at the beginning of the next line, im- 
mediately after ^.x&o . On the other hand the hole may have been in the leaf when 
the colophon was written. If this conjecture or that of Mrs. Lewis is right, the date 
is complete as it stands; and the upper writing was finished on the third of Tammuz, 
An. Graecorum 1009, i.e. 698 A. D. The question at issue can be settled only on 
palaeographical grounds. There is a difference of eighty-one years between the two 
proposed dates, and it should be possible to decide which is more probable by com- 
paring the upper writing with documents dated respectively about 698 and about 
779 A. D. When this comparison is made, it is clear that the upper writing resembles 
the script of certain manuscripts copied at the end of the seventh century and at the 
beginning of the eighth much more closely than that of codices which were written 
in the latter part of the eighth century. Hence it is highly probable that the date as 
given in the colophon at present is correct, viz. 1*^x^10 &\r£ r^Auxia, i. e. An. 
Graecorum 1009. See Plates XLVII and XLIX. 

2 For a description of this codex see A. S. Lewis, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 

[97] 



PLATE XLVII 

720 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 27 (foil. 94.V.-149), fol. 101. 2 

Daniel according to the Version of Jacob of Edessa. 

Vellum; 25.3 to 25.5 cm. X 16.3 to 17.1 cm.; 56 leaves; one column; 
21 to 23 lines to the page; top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Estrangela. 
The scribe's name was Lazarus. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Daniel 2: 45-48. 



scripts in the Convent of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai, Studia Sinaitica, No. I (Lon- 
don, 1894), PP- 43 & (No. 30). 

3 The scribe describes himself three times : once as a\^3 duna T^x^njj «luCV> 
rdxA^o (fol. 2v.), once as &\\± »*H r^x^rua ^Oln *"03 Aula* pd.»i.»n.w ^jjCU 
r^dUk^^a ^V^3 (fol. 1 65V.), and once as ^cun *\2n Auras r£*iG\cx>r£ ^iwOa 
cd^OjJ^vKla \g± r£&i>:C73 (*"V^* ^"^.^3^ t4\*X (fol. 181). The name of 
the convent was probably Beth Mar Qanon the Saint. Ma'arrath Mesren " is a small 
town in Lat. 36 N, about equidistant from Antioch and Aleppo." See F. C. Burkitt, 
of. cit. y II, pp. 18 f. 

4 See F. C. Burkitt, of. cit. y II, pp. 21 ff. 

1 Second Kanun 18, An. Graecorum 1031. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit. y pp. 1 1 f. 

3 At the beginning of the codex Lazarus, l Adi (*3t<^.), and John are mentioned 
as the scribes. According to a note at the end e Adi was the son of Lazarus; and 
according to another note also at the end the manuscript was copied for John, an 
anchorite of Sarin Castra. The latter was then living in the Convent of the Pure 
Monks. The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[98] 



720 A. D. 



Plate XLVII 















m 




Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 27 (foil. 94v.-149), folio 101 



Plate XLVIII 

|<tt*SJt- *^£*>* OCT* 

«&^a .rk»hn*£ cni>3 
ocra usnii^a .'-c^ar^ 

>cnc\^\»t<^ ^»n r^u*X>a 
cm^a* olcn .r«^*SjL- 

.<3\<\aaa coa rCucvta 
r^Xoan ^Acracv *ja2Loa 

•A^a cdcv .r6Hjjr^fl 
^dati^a r^balt<X r^noa 

.r^jC r£»:ut<fc\ rdwrefc 

^t^ .,<oaW Uc\}£>a 
r^vaijoa* ^3 os^ 
.t^ctbW r^*X* 

t^&n^ . \*r\v)rv!\ Aoa 



723 A. D. 

A^a rtft^ar^^oa-nrx'??^ 
^>a r^n^a nlfeatj&i 

»*CT3C\ .\<\VlY . *>a 

^oa\ rc^fca* v&aSa* 
rC^OMn^ ^a rcT-u^arcT 

.^r^av^'cra .^baWn 
vr^cnn wr^* n5ar^ 

.t^icoa2Aa*-ncvneo\ rtferalr^ 

nSar^ fc\»rd*ir£ Jr>ajjn 

•»gcracya\T^ r^Hiaa *Tai 

t^°AuX^a r^*n «j»cn 

^V * it A V t^VWi ^3 

Abu* .f^H^at^n »*cra 
»- u«kr^ r^n^a cnl 
rC*n>a ^a ^c^ajaH 

r^Ac^a-ujcv *A«vrtaw *»n 

j»^\>ar^'.t^nnxja rdiiaa 
rc^az*-.T<^ub *tfttxl 

•x^nnat- ^»* Acra jib 
.tfeiaW* rtAJba rdAr^ 

n^ar^-Su^ r^r^ Aa. 
*<\r^ ..i-»CTa<\iurfc'*d 



London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 8606, folio 86 



PLATE XLVIII 

723 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 8606, fol. 86. 2 

Athanasius, Four Discourses, Five Letters, and an Exposition 
(r&yuca); 3 Damasus of Rome, A Synodal Letter; Basil, A Discourse on 
the Refutation of (Heretical) Opinions; 4 id., A Discourse concerning 
Substance and Hypostasis; Amphilochius of Iconium, A Discourse on John 
XIV, 28; Proclus of Constantinople, A Discourse on the Nativity of Our 
Lord and on the Virgin; John of Constantinople, A Discourse on Matthew 
XXVI, 39; Ephraem Syrus, A Discourse on the Nativity; Proclus, A Dis- 
course on the Birth of Our Lord in the Flesh; Severianof Gabala, A Discourse 
on the Birth of Our Lord and against the Heretics; Leo of Rome, An En- 
cyclical (or Synodal) Letter (i. e. the Tome of Leo to Flavian); Felix of 
Rome, A Letter in Condemnation of Peter the Fuller, Bishop of Antioch; 
and Sophronius of Jerusalem, A Section of a Letter to Arcadius, Bishop 
of Cyprus. 

Vellum; 24.9 to 25.4 cm. X 16.8 to 17. 1 cm.; 142 leaves; two columns; 
34 to 36 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brownish; Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Gabriel, and the 
manuscript was written in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the treatise of Ps.- 
Basil which is commonly known as Adversus Eunomium, V, 4. For the 
Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., XXIX, col. 757. 

1 Nisan, An. Graecorum 1034. The day of the month is not given. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Rosen and Forshall (1838), or in 
that of Wright (1870-1872), or in the list of Margoliouth (1899). It was acquired by 
the Museum after 1899. See C. Moss in The Journal of Theological Studies, XXX, 
pp. 249 ff.; and H. G. Opitz in the Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 
XXXIII, pp. 18 ff. 

3 For the titles of these see H. G. Opitz in of. cit., XXXIII, pp. 19 ff.; and R. P. 
Casey in The Journal of Theological Studies, XXXV, pp. 66 f . 

4 This discourse corresponds to Books IV and V of Basil's Adversus Eunomium 
(Migne, Patr. Gr., XXIX, cols. 671 ff.). These two books, however, were not written 
by Basil. See O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur (second ed., 
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1913-1924), III, p. 138, note 4. 



L99J 



PLATE XLIX 



724 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14430, fol. 59V. 2 

First Kings according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum: 23.9 to 24.2 cm. X 15.9 to 16.4 cm.; 73 leaves; one column; 
21 to 23 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Saba, 3 and he was 
a native or resident of Ras-ain. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is 1 Kings 19: 12-17. 

1 Adar 8, An. Graecorum 1035. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 1 5 f . (No. 
XXIV). 

3 In a note (on fol. 73) he calls himself r^raflo'Oa . 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[ioo] 



724 A. D. 



Plate XLIX 



.t&tem otoaefla cnl?7cbo n3i<a 
rc^Acn* mir^ .iak~ T<br* -cral 
UD cmaw .KSotLm r^alr^ 







«*U£min £*J^cfc»s kdcmI^xi 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14430, folio 59v. 



Plate L 



726 A. D. 



r&±z\r£ irvnt^bal «^M&r^ ^3L^ 
*xir&S tv&yc&L ^Sru^ v*=^* 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12135 (foil. 1-43), folio 1.5 



PLATE L 

726 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12135 (foil. 1-43), fol. 15. 2 

Ezekiel, Chapters XXVI-XLVIII, according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.6 to 25.2 cm. X 16.9 to 17.2 cm.; 43 leaves; one column; 
23 to 27 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Saba, and he was 
a native or resident of Ras-ain. The manuscript was written in the Con- 
vent of the Specula (co*Aia2ifia^) near Ras-ain. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Ezekiel 33: 25-31. 

1 Nisan 1, An. Graecorum 1037. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 24 ff. (No. 
XL). 



[101] 




734 A. D. 



PLATE LI 

734 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 8731, fol. 64* 

Gregory Nazianzen, Thirty Discourses. 3 

Vellum; 26.7 to 27 cm. X 16.9 to 17.3 cm.; 87 leaves; two columns; 
42 to 52 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Aksenaya of the Con- 
vent of Mar Matthew in the mountain of Aleppo. 4 The manuscript once 
belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's discourse 
entitled Kara Evvofnavcov irpoSidketJLs, V-VIII. For the Greek text see 
Migne, Patr. Gr., XXXVI, cols. 17ft 

1 Second Kanun 27, An. Graecorum 1045. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Rosen and Forshall (1838), or in 
that of Wright (1 870-1 872), or in the list of Margoliouth (1899). It was acquired by 
the Museum after 1899. 

3 According to the colophon these discourses were translated into Syriac by Jacob 
of Edessa. This statement, however, is subject to grave doubt. See W. Wright, A 
Short History of Syriac Literature (London, 1894), p. 149; and A. Baumstark, Ge- 
schichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), pp. 251 f. Jacob probably revised the 
translation of Gregory's discourses which was made by Paul the Abbot in Cyprus in 
the year 624. The order of the discourses in this codex is the same as that found in 
Add. MS. 121 53 (No. DLV). See W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts 
in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part II, pp. 423 ff. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 










_ 1 #M*i 

**s»«w*Aas »v'<6ua . In't . »j£i 
.oct.Uj okT.Ju^. Vn* . . * «*?-°' 



Plate LI 

►I^Jb a&jH*..© «?*&»»« Aao» 

'"^W *3» *!»«.%» , WWUo 
.iJt»»Uaj» ^iia ^5Aiao ' ^am3o 

-lacai Wikte v W *4 fo uyr u 

*'***%*. *<:.&» -*&»#&? 

°»i »*a* •*>*&&* J£tf» ett% 

oA .V^A.*£J^'.)-/iA«,ol 
Vaiaai >*i\. ol.» **km 











' : Viinfly-1 *jcu» »'cil^ ***» • J0 » 
.^Jil, *.jS1S ^VaJi v»i^." "AaJ 



[102] 



London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 8731, folio 64 



Plate LII 



736 A. D. 



.eoi 






joar- 



JED 











KJ3<U 






•K^ or 










cm 








! evcrii^^ i 




■•• •« ** • *. 



2X3** 



-sua ufe. ee»H 







■Hrhr^ Q^x<^<ii£n 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 13, folio 87 



Q 



PLATE LII 

736 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 13, fol. 8y. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 35.3 to 35.7 cm. X 25.2 to 25.4 cm.; 338 leaves; two columns; 
15 to 21 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brownish; Estrangela. The scribe's name was John, and the manu- 
script was written at t^O^con ^o*taK! on the Euphrates. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 27: 20-24. 

1 Uul, An. Graecorum 1047. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 36 ff. 



[103] 



i^M 



740-741 A. D. 



Plate LIII 



PLATE LIII 

740-741 A. D. 1 
Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Syr. 26 (Sachau 321), fol. 148V. 2 

The Lives and Writings of Various Ecclesiastics; 8 The Legend of the 
Seven Sleepers; and The Doctrina Apostolorum (a fragment). 

Vellum; 30.5 to 31 cm. X 22 cm.; 189 leaves; two columns; 34 to 38 
lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a sharp 
point; ink brown; Estrangela. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Life of John of 
Telia written by a certain Elias. See H. G. Kleyn, Het Leven van Johannes 
van Telia door Elias (Leiden, 1882), pp. 6 ff. 

1 An. Graecorum 1052. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see E. Sachau, Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse 
der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin, 1899), I, pp. 94 ff. 

3 For the titles of these works see E. Sachau, of. cit., I, pp. 94 ff. Most of them are 
translations of Greek originals. The following writers are represented in the col- 
lection: Gregory of Nyssa; Athanasius; Amphilochius of Iconium; Theophilus of 
Alexandria; Zacharias Rhetor or Scholasticus; Severus of Antioch; John, Abbot of the 
Convent of Beth-Aphtundyd; Elias (of Dar&?); John of Ephesus or Asia; Cyriacus of 
Amida; and Theodoret. 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[104] 



* r ^t % >*«f>o ^&4» «£at 

****?&* ^<&l, <%Hm 




v * aM * J ™ \tergg& fokoLA Jm\?£? 
t^ 4 kilter* « *^aAiu «4 Mai 



r^r **°? -*r A*JW 

^a*J^> 9 ^3&^>3 sax. A otiSiai: 
*H* *± « f**»* W JU% 

* 



Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek 
Cod. Syr. 26 (Sachau 321), folio 148v. 



Plate LIV 



756 A. D. 









icunasftairia t^^^ 



xCladr^i lata «*nct . a §• t^»3 %-n x*£ r^i'^. 



*-»»i^ — **» - — i - r* i_im...T|T_ | v^r *7 w » — ^ — * 



V*** «3 Hja «<13 «UOTUJ33 
O^TM , >***» <J*>«* *^ 



tea 



^L, -tfbrt^-ase* 



kcA 



jmcm 



J^^vien mit^ci 



ttf 



IUt<£? "tf&Wa 






,Jk<!sci ^gjoan T*^^ 

cicraci .craS »acr3»*u oral 
crai &i»t<fci TSfliJ^ Ocn 

v^&a t^ici- «nk* r^wr^ei 



' col J" "^' 



acn 







cO.cn o^^^^V^P x^M£# 



Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana 
Plut. I, Cod. 40, folio 100 



PLATE LIV 

756 A. D. 1 
Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Plut. I, Cod. 40, fol. ioo. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 30.1 to 30.3 cm. X 21.6 to 22.9 cm.; 161 leaves; two columns; 
26 to 35 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brownish; Estrangela; one miniature (Luke standing). 3 The manu- 
script was written in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Edessa. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 8 : 1 5-27. 

1 First Kanun, An. Graecorum 1068. Trie day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. Assemani, Bibliothecae Mediceae Lauren- 
tianae et Palatinae Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium Catalogus (Florence, 
1742), pp. 28 ff. (No. III). 

3 See supra, p. 21. 

4 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[105] 



PLATE LV 

769 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 122, fol. 77V. 2 

Mark the Monk, 3 Six Discourses; Isaiah of Scete, 4 Ten Discourses; 
Macarius of Egypt, Three Discourses and Eight Letters; Macarius of 
Alexandria, Three Discourses and Seven Letters; Ammonius, Fifteen Let- 
ters; Questions of Monks addressed to Basil; and Abraham ^i&Ski, 5 Three 
Discourses. 

Vellum; 21.9 to 22 cm. X 14.8 to 15 cm.; 219 leaves; one column; 29 
to 38 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a sharp 
point; ink brown and black; Estrangela. 6 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a discourse of Isaiah 
of Scete entitled De Perfectione (Oratio XXIII, Sections IV and V). For 
the Latin text see Migne, Pair. Gr., XL, cols. 1 172 f. 



1 Ab 30, An. Graecorum 1080. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit. y Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 132 ff. 

3 He was also known as Mark the Hermit. 

4 He was sometimes called Isaiah the Abbot and Isaiah the Hermit. 

5 He was known as T^.rt&&i among the Jacobites and as r^&Au among the 
Nestorians. 

6 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[106] 






769 A. D. 



Plate LV 






fcnttf ~m£U* .<*>»<n\^U *jujah «f^jX^ ^asn jrgO 

t£u±tl\ ^i^ci .Wwivrtf* *"** na«a* acts .-143 
Jn^s** «^<h ^^* <rt •tAfll»3»tf &U35 CICB 

hxh rCLa »*ur£ ns&Sk. rCUrC *)Srua .«r^c4s 

Jen n*\» t^W^ rtfer&Y£i n&au „<!■» ^«n r$ikj-i 
.*ab<in»Sw-fl^ rOEj«<nA2h3 -nam* *»n»m»v<x^& 

•r^eicns idhcu&a* Atrial cn\ y&i r&&x. k\* 
*iM3«atii <A&Wt^5 ^A»t<lci. acnia^. A\ 

cijn «*wfc* '0m*.. ..u&* <i'm«i -n$^i 4*L 
<w*^r *«*«u**-t »k&*r£ .K*£ 5 rf*^ 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 122, folio 77v. 



/J' 



Plate LVI 



770 A. D. 



rtfacnl r^Vn 




s<a T<Ga&m T<i*H03ciii vjrs^ 








London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 8732 (foil. 1-56), folio 16 



PLATE LVI 

770 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 8732 (foil. 1-56), fol. 16. 2 

Ezra and Nehemiah according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 26.7 cm. X 17.5 to 17.8 cm.; 56 leaves; one column; 21 to 23 
lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Es- 
trangela. The scribed name was Emmanuel. The manuscript was written 
in the Convent of Beth Mar Simeon, which was at Qartamin. The codex 
once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Ezra 7: 26-8: 3. 

1 An. Graecorum 1082. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 153. The Mohammedan year 153 began on 
January 4, 770 A. D., and ended on December 23, 770 A. D. Therefore the codex 
was finished between October 1, 770 A. D., and December 23, 770 A. D. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Rosen and Forshall (1838), or in 
that of Wright (1 870-1 872), or in the list of Margoliouth (1899). It was acquired by 
the Museum after 1 899. 



[107] 



774-775 A. D. 



Plate LVII 



PLATE LVII 

774-775 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 70, fol. 58. 2 

John of Lycopolis, 3 Sixteen Discourses, Exhortations, Letters, etc. 4 
Vellum; 23.8 to 24 cm. X 16.4 to 16.8 cm.; 88 leaves; two columns; 
25 to 38 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Cyprian, and 
he was a native or resident of Nisibis. The manuscript was written in 
Edessa. This is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of 
St. Mary Deipara in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a letter of John of 
Lycopolis to Marcianus. This letter has apparently not been published, and 
it does not seem to be extant in Greek. 

*An. Hegirae 158, which began on November 11, 774 A. D., and ended on 
October 30, yy$ A. D. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. tit.. Part II, pp. 454 ff. (No. 
DLXXIII). 

3 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corf us Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit, Part II, pp. 455 ff. Only the last 
few words of the first of these discourses are preserved. 



[108] 






v*C?J 






■* 
* 



^ — mi? K&$ tcULv 






.tAi^AwAA .n3to -**k >£? .*5=»m2» m? r&&la Ag* 
cr>M=n ^TOS-iu^ «i^t9i siwftibjUy^^ 



* Clfi 



^d^C<Uas«j ^<n .-JSeA .t<Lim»i& -A. Www ^**C 
^AU^S^iai r^&etUnSfSfi •f-*(iLL&£i V*WH s»V 



**c» 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17170, folio 58 



Plate LVIII 



789 A. D. 



m Jk •jwutoaiQ «*iaaaA ^^Muri 






Ficca*^ o^a^aa ^sr&ret ?*&nxifo c^W- 



"•^«b «j&^n «.^^ jaqMV^SLT^cn v<^ 

London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17160 (foil. 29 and 30), folio 29v. 






PLATE LVIII 

789 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 60 (foil. 29 and 30), fol. 29V. 2 

An Order for the Consecration of a Bishop (a fragment); Forms of 
Benediction; and Prayers at the Consecration of a Bishop. 

Vellum; 18.3 and 20.6 cm. X 11. 3 and 13 cm.; 2 leaves; two columns; 
26 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Habib, or Agapetos. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Order for the 
Consecration of a Bishop. This order has apparently not been published. 

1 Haziran, An. Graecorum 11 00. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 235 f. (No. 
CCCIII). 

3 At the end of the colophon he has added in uncial letters : e/o> 'Ayawurbs (sic) 
ypajjjarevs (sic) ety/xifya] (sic). The name of the place where the manuscript was 
written is not given. 



[109] 






802 A. D. 



Plate LIX 



PLATE LIX 

802 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14621, fol. 94.* 

Philoxenus of Mabbug, Two Discourses; 3 id., A Letter to Patricius of 
Edessa; John of Lycopolis, 4 The First Letter to Eutropius and Eusebius; 
Evagrius, Twenty-five Discourses and Exhortations; 5 Three Discourses 
from the Book of Steps; 6 Anthony, A Letter; Evagrius, Two Tracts; 7 Jacob 
of Serug, 8 A Prose Discourse; Philoxenus of Mabbug, A Penitential Prayer; 
and John of Lycopolis, 4 Two Letters. 9 

Vellum; 27.4 to 27.6 cm. X 18.3 to 18.8 cm.; 172 leaves; two columns; 
32 to 40 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black and brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was George. 10 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a discourse of Evagrius 
addressed to Eulogius the Monk. 11 The Greek text of this work is printed 
in Migne, Patr. Gr., LXXIX, cols. 1093 ff- The Greek text, however, con- 
tains nothing corresponding to the Syriac passage reproduced here. The 
Syriac translation of the discourse presupposes a different recension of the 
Greek original. 

1 Adar 27, An. Graecorum 11 13. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 756 ff. (No. 
DCCLXXIX). 

3 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 756. 

4 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called "the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the Journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

5 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part II, p. 757. 

6 Discourses XVIII, XX, and XXIX. 

7 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 758. 

8 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

9 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 758. 

10 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

11 In Greek tradition this discourse is attributed to Nilus the Monk. 



[no] 



"V^a^in rtfairoti -x^xsin^ 

ooa <rv^cni<v <iaai 

• ^-OLiri* ncrnurc .t<M*ac^a 

TWWl*W<n^3 f* 1 t^v*- 1 -TV 

t^s^t na&d** TChoo^a 

.r*Aw&a ><cn ^u=rt r£*x$> 

*aa r£uaa <at< .rAri^i 
^H 1 f^Wa'-.TMwrAbaqci 



m\Mo Suenac Avtoaac-. 
< t£2fcmaci t^&witda . l^ra 

tv^A3e« <n=a<ui<\ «ni*a^ 
v&yas± . .<m^a *iwi 



iCn 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14621, folio 94 



Plate LX 



804 A. D. 



It 

1! 



Ill 

IS 



6 



*M*»« *^< t^«*p t ^*WK 
^ali>3 :^<n *Ai^ *tf*w^ *5A^ en^-^. 
-SSs* tcfta&S cni*A j«^ .r£x»nri *£** J£& 

V**tf *^t* J^^ «^ "^ *? ** *» 






jeaffiSfjffiasr 









PLATE LX 

8o 4 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 51, fol. 43.* 

Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite, On the Celestial Hierarchy; id., On the 
Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; id., On Divine Names; id., On Mystical Theology; 
and id., Ten Epistles. 3 

Vellum; 26.1 to 27 cm. X 18.2 to 18.9 cm.; 177 leaves; one and two 
columns; 4 30 to 35 lines to the page or column; columns and top lines ruled 
with lead; ink black; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named George. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the treatise of Ps.- 
Dionysius entitled Ilepl rrjs eKKXrjo-LacrTLKfjs lepapxicLS, Chapter II, §§ II- VI. 
For the Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., Ill, cols. 393 ff. 

1 Nisan 20, An. Graecorum n 15. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 493 ff. (No. 
DCXXV). 

3 The introductory matter and notes of Phocas of Edessa, the scholia of John 
Scholasticus, and two long extracts from the prefaces of John Scholasticus and George 
of Scythopolis on the authenticity of these writings are also included in the manu- 
script. The works of Ps.-Dionysius were translated from Greek into Syriac by the 
priest and chief physician Sergius of Ras-'ain, who died in 536 A. D. On Sergius 
(Sargis) see A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922}, pp. 
167 ff. 

4 From fol. 91 v. to the end of the codex there are two columns to the page. 

5 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[ml 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12151, folio 43 



PLATE LXI 

815 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12171 (foil. 1-64), fol. 50. 2 

John Philoponus, 3 The Diaetetes; id., A General Discourse; 4 id., A Short 
Excerpt; 5 An Anonymous Discourse; 6 John Philoponus, A Discourse ad- 
dressed to the Priest Sergius; 7 and Samuel of Ras-ain, An Extract from a 
Discourse against the Diphysites. 

Vellum; 27.2 to 27.4 cm. X 18.1 to 18.9 cm.; 64 leaves; two columns; 
29 to 39 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brownish; Estrangela. 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the anonymous dis- 
course which was probably written by John Philoponus. The work has 
apparently not been published. 

1 Nisan, An. Graecorum 1 126. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 587 f. (No. 
DCCI). 

3 He was also known as John the Grammarian. 

4 For the title of this see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 587 f . 

5 For the title of this see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, p. 588. 

6 For the title of this see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 588. This discourse was 
probably written by John Philoponus. 

7 For the title of this see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 588. 

8 The name of the scribe has been erased. " The believing city " (r^du»:ira 
r^du^Oaco^a) , i. e. Edessa, is mentioned in the colophon at the point where we should 
expect the name of the place in which the manuscript was written, and it is highly 
probable that the codex was copied in that city. The preposition ^ governing 
^Auj>^^t3 has apparently been erased with the name of an ecclesiastic preceding it. 



[112] 



815 A. D. 



Plate LXI 



stC^taxjT^ *-^« Nemos 

^J-»«t* ..col t^AsonGtti 
•jkX^AA t^cUCn tO\^<nJ 

**«n T^VcuncvjAa ?uA. 

•t<34,c*&ci t^uiiw Vol? o<» 

"-*«* t<^vj^w >«ra 

«<wt^\nxu>an t<^oaa 



t£l<n r£a^jpa r^l on^t*o. 

Vol? •jOtfen \^i&s»x£ 
•^-»*V*jU r£feia»V* Vol 

Ccra-t^ ."Vm Ocvart 3&Oar£ 
0*p3!lCV v^,*^ cnfcioln 

oJ t^vu^tin ^cicnLenn? 
^^V* t^Vm*^ ©lean* 

«a cue* t^eicn tuba 

T* 71 ^ .tCiacu ^3icuc^9 
^».n rCmeo >y ^q^ 

<^ t<T ^c^t^ ct < 
^^ t^Kiyt t£ibcv» ^u^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12171 (foil. 1-64), folio 50 



Plate LXII 



817 A. D. 



rectos , rt^*ju.MCUU< ■X&\o»t&*a-*C1 

.'cms* ocsadotsa au*k cvr£ o**&i&i£an 
.t rivi a ^rtf*a^ ai^atc'^^is*^ 












••<*<*& 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14593, folio 39 



PLATE LXII 

817 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14593, fol. 39.* 

John Climacus, A Reply to a Letter of John, Abbot of Raithu; id., The 
Scala Paradisi; id., The Liber ad Pastorem; and Three Short Extracts. 3 

Vellum; 19.4 to 20.7 cm. X 13 to 14.3 cm.; 187 leaves; one column; 
28 to 34 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Bar-sauma, and he was an 
Edessene. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Scala Paradisi, 
Discourse IV. For the Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., LXXXVIII, col. 713. 

1 Tammuz, An. Graecorum 1 128. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. tit., Part II, pp. 590 f. (No. 
DCCIV). 

3 These extracts are found on two fly-leaves at the end of the codex (folia 186 and 
187). For the titles of them see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 591. 



[113] 



PLATE LXIII 

819 to 830 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 72, fol. 187. 2 

Extracts from the Four Gospels, the Pauline Epistles (including 
Hebrews), and James according to the Peshitta Version; 3 Apophthegmata 
Patrum; 4 Athanasius, The History of Anthony; The History of Paul the 
Simple; 5 The History of Joseph the Egyptian and Eulogius the Greek; 
Select Sayings of One of the Holy Fathers of Scete; 6 The History of Abbd 
Nathaniel; 7 The History of Serapion; 8 Palladius, The History of John of 
Lycopolis; 9 John of Lycopolis, 10 Letters, Discourses, and Doctrinal Tracts; w 
Ephraem Syrus, A Discourse on Two Commemorations; and Jacob of 
Serug, 12 Admonitory and Penitential Hymns. 

Vellum; 20.6 to 21.1 cm. X 15.6 to 16.1 cm.; 287 leaves; one column; 
24 to 32 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Theodosius. 13 This 
is one of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara 
in Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the First Discourse 
of John of Lycopolis with Eutropius and Eusebius on the Soul and on the 
Distinction of the Passions of Men. The work has apparently not been 
published, and it does not seem to be extant in Greek. 

1 According to a note on fol. 281 v. the manuscript was written in the time of 
Dionysius, patriarch of Antioch (rd»"\G£to) ; and of Jacob, patriarch of Egypt (i. e. 
Alexandria); and of Basil, metropolitan of Tagrit. Dionysius held office from 818 to 
845 A. D.; Jacob presided over the see of Alexandria from 819 to 836 A. D.; and Basil 
of Tagrit died in 830 A. D. See J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 1719- 
1728), II, p. 434. Hence the manuscript was copied between 819 and 830 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 759 ff. (No. 
DCCLXXX). 

3 The extracts from the Gospels are preceded by Psalm 1 : 1-3. For the New 
Testament extracts see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part II, pp. 759 f . 

4 These once formed part of a miscellaneous collection of apophthegmata. See Dom 
C. Butler in Texts and Studies, VI, 1, p. 94. 

5 This history is taken from Version I of the Historia Lausiaca. See Dom C. Butler 
in of. cit., VI, 1, pp. 85 and 93. 

6 These sayings are from a miscellaneous collection of apophthegmata. See Dom C. 
Butler in of. cit., VI, 1, p. 94. 

7 This history is taken from Version II of the Historia Lausiaca. See Dom C. Butler 
in of. cit., VI, 1, pp. 86 and 93. 

8 This history is derived from a miscellaneous document. See Dom C. Butler in 
Of. cit., VI, 1, p. 94. 

9 This history is taken from Version I of the Historia Lausiaca. See Dom C. Butler 
in of. cit., VI, 1, pp. 85 and 93. 

10 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 

[114] 



819 to 830 A. D. 



Plate LXIII 







jA *& or&ajfca 













f-\ 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17172, folio 187 



Plate LXIV 



823-824 A. D. 



• • # 






*&a) 






• 



***"*.« 
***«,»<■* 



PLATE LXIV 

823-824 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14485, fol. y. 2 

A Lectionary containing Lessons from the Old and the New Testament 
and from the Apocrypha. 3 

Vellum; 25.9 to 26.2 cm. X 17 to 17.7 cm.; 121 leaves; two columns; 
24 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in the Church 
of Mar Ahudemmeh in Harran. 4 The codex once belonged to the Convent 
of Abba Bishoi in Nitria. 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Genesis 1 9 : 20-28 and 1 Kings 
18: 29-35. 

called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the Journal Asiatique y Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

11 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 760 f. 

12 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

13 It is impossible to determine where the manuscript was written. 

1 An. Graecorum 1135. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 146 ff. (No. 
CCXX). 

3 The Old Testament lessons are taken in part from the Peshitt& and in part from 
the Syro-Hexaplar version. When the latter translation is followed, this fact is in- 
dicated by the words ^1^ Acora or ^1^ r<&Ctt2alx£>3 VY»r£ in the head- 
ings. The New Testament lections, which are taken from the Peshitta, are chiefly 
from the Acts and Catholic Epistles. There seem to be no readings from the Gospels, 
and only the first lines of lessons from the Pauline Epistles are given. 

4 The codex is the work of two scribes, whose names are not given. Folia 1-101 
were written by the first copyist. The second hand begins at fol. 10 1 v. and continues 
to the end of the manuscript. 



[115] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14455, folio 7 



PLATE LXV 

824 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14486, fol. 58.' 

A Lectionary of the Old and the New Testament for All the Principal 
Festivals of the Year according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.2 to 24.3 cm. X 16.8 to 17.2 cm.; 81 leaves; two columns; 
28 to 32 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Estrangela. 3 

The passages reproduced in the plate are 2 Kings 9:10 (first line of 
right-hand column), Ezekiel 3: 16-21, and 1 Peter 5: 1-5. 

1 Adar, An. Graecorum 1 135. The day of the month is not given. The codex was 
bound by a monk named Isaac at this date, and it is probable that the copying of the 
manuscript was completed in the same year. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, pp. 149 ft. (No. 
CCXXI). 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. It was copied for the Church of Mar Ahudemmeh (GQi73t<3CU»f<)> 
which was in r^aGa Aua in Harran. 



[n6] 



824 A. D. 



Plate LXV 







,xga±> di»t<*n xCxixa 

.1^ CKts f% CTXMZSCULA 













ben*** .fci^Ar^K* 










•^ 



^**si cn&aaa 



•'"*% " 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14486, folio 58 



Plate LXVI 



837 A. D. 



>*» Wliatdis out 
/nuo*^ •oil VuVui ojw 

V^lf 0103^^303 1& :wf 






WK-iio :»oooxii»»b7 

•^0#i»*C^ 1*1 001 OjW 

.;<&££> jm&u*S 9 ^oibj 
ZA^o.&iaaia «<iuboo 



PLATE LXVI 

837 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 52, fol. 108. 2 

Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite, On the Celestial Hierarchy; id., On the 
Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; id., On Divine Names; id., On Mystical Theology; 
id., Ten Epistles; 3 and Diodes, 4 A History of Rome (a fragment). 

Vellum; 26.6 to 27.3 cm. X 17.6 to 18 cm.; 195 leaves; two columns; 
27 to 32 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Addai, and he was a 
native or resident of Amida. The manuscript was written in the village of 
Tur-laha in the neighbourhood of Antioch, in the region of Beth-Maiya, 
near the Convent of Pesilta. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the treatise of Ps.- 
Dionysius entitled Ilepi Oeicov dvoixdrcov, Chapter II, § XI. For the Greek 
text see Migne, Patr. Gr., Ill, col. 649. 

1 Haziran 30, An. Graecorum 1148. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 497 fF. (No. 
DCXXVI). 

3 The introductory matter and notes of Phocas of Edessa, John Scholasticus, and 
George of Scythopolis are also included in the manuscript. The works of Ps.-Diony- 
sius were translated from Greek into Syriac by the priest and chief physician Sergius 
of Ras- e ain, who died in 536 A. D. On Sergius (Sargis) see A. Baumstark, Geschichte 
der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), pp. 167 ff. 

4 I. e. probably Diodes of Peparethos, a Hellenistic historian apparently of the 
third century B. C. According to Plutarch (Row. Ill, 1 and VIII, 7) he wrote the 
first Greek work on the founding of Rome ('Pw/ai/? ktixtis). See W. Christ and W. 
Schmid, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in I. von Miillers Handbuch der 
klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft (sixth ed., Munich, 191 2-1920), II, 1, p. 222; M. 
Schanz and C. Hosius, Geschichte der romischen Literatur in I. von Miiller and W. 
Otto's Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft (fourth ed., Munich, 1927- 193 5), I, pp. 
172 f.; and Rosenberg in Pauly-Wissowas Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Alter- 
tumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1 894-), Zweite Reihe, Erster Halbband, col. 1085. 



[117] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12152, folio 108 



I 



844-845 A. D. 



Plate LXVII 



PLATE LXVII 

844-845 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 53, fol. 53. 2 

Gregory Nazianzen, Thirty Discourses. 3 

Vellum; 28.2 to 28.5 cm. X 19.7 to 20.5 cm.; 206 leaves; two columns; 
35 t0 39 hnes to the column (first hand), and 32 to 38 lines to the column 
(second hand); columns and top lines ruled with lead; 4 ink black; 
Estrangela and Serta. 5 The second scribe was a stylite named Ephraim, 
and he was a native or resident of Kephar-Tauretha near Zeugma. 6 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a letter of Severus 
of Antioch. 7 This letter has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 1 56. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 423 ff. (No. 
DLV). 

3 These discourses were translated in Cyprus in the year 624 by Paul the Abbot, 
who was also known as Paul of Edessa. For a list of them see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part 
II, pp. 423 ff. 

4 In the latter half of the codex the bottom lines also are ruled with lead. 

5 The codex is the work of two scribes. Folia 1-42 were written by the first hand, 
and folia 43-206 by the second. The first copyist wrote in Serta. The second began in 
Serta, but almost immediately (fol. 43V.) he changed to Estrangela. He continued to 
write in Estrangela as far as fol. 1 52, when he reverted to Serta. For a specimen of the 
Serta hand see Plate CI. 

6 The name of the first scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was 
written are not given. 

7 Two short extracts from letters of Severus on the doctrine of the Trinity are 
inserted between two discourses of Gregory Nazianzen on peace. 



[n8] 



rea-jatnqrCa fjaSfvr^ui^t^ 

r£Ul J^:A»^i JLs*v3 tCieioa 
f** -.lCfcVjiba T<1CD 

*X^V tdio^ «&&* 
'<*&3*\e\ *T3*!xa .pauWc 



enjroaauta &ur* «wuAa 

*J* *iq<r&T< ? rAuiia &\A«\ 

Ik™*™ ?*« «***&< 
^^ x£xxx<ci rsdqcn 

^ m* -ni<qd .t<i4 

•*eu&a *c*5ix* .TCiTb^a 
▼clocra .rs^oai^ »oae&i»t< 

JW^qei&q -r^qtoaqtC-a 

^W wt<q cfxi^-aoa 

^-s^c^^craq tCncwoaq 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12153, folio 53 



Plate LXVIII 

w m 



857 A. D. 

































- 










fcMfeaa«3 




Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 116, folio 14 



PLATE LXVIII 

857 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 116, fol. 14. 2 

Jacob of Serug, 3 Metrical Discourses; 4 and Antiphons of Every Kind 
for the Whole Year. 

Vellum; 23.9 cm. X 16 to 16.4 cm.; 43 leaves; two columns; 24 to 27 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Habib. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Jacob's metrical dis- 
course On *Achar the Son of Carmi. This discourse has apparently not 
been published. ' 

1 Second Teshrin 12, An. Graecorum 1169. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 86 f. 

3 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

4 Of the twenty discourses which were originally contained in this codex there 
remain only Nos. XVII-XX. For the titles of them see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. 
cit., Pars I, Tomus III, p. 86. 

5 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[119] 




PLATE LXIX 

858-859 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 268, fol. 38.* 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 
Vellum; 27.8 cm. X 20.4 cm.; 172 leaves; one column; 21 to 30 lines 
to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Estrangela. 3 
The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 20: 22-29. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 170. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see A. Mai, Serif torum Veterum Nova Collectio 
(Rome, 1 825-1 838), V, Part II, pp. 4 f. 

3 The colophon is much damaged by water or dampness. If it contained the name 
of the scribe or that of the place where the manuscript was written, they have perished. 



[120] 



858-859 A. D. 



Plate LXIX 



A>* C*a «T<fc*v vacrA *C*rsfci «>i*^w pal 

•i^fo**** «^=o causae •aaQ > **|«A»<a r&*£ 

^% cica -T<a^ M ^ii K&ifea Jba ciL^i< 
K*> ••^artf <aa^tca ^ojt< r^jgi wa .snTfc 



'?OsV 



§ 










4>» 






#£^^05-.% §». <£axs*u> **&$?f 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 268, folio 38 



Plate LXX 



873-874 A. D. 




4% r&-en ^emt< »cn\t%^ .■" 



tinra ocuj 






qcnjkD .^rucfcrw -«oc*^. crftnc^ 



OCT3 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17109, folio 3 7 v. 



PLATE LXX 

873-874 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 09, fol. 37V. 2 

The Psalms according to the Peshitta Version; 8 Ephraem Syrus, 
A Metrical Discourse; John Chrysostom, A Discourse on Repentance; 
Ephraem Syrus, A Hymn for the Dead; and the Creed of Severus of Antioch. 

Vellum; 25.5 to 25.9 cm. X 17.1 to 18 cm.; 147 leaves; one column; 
20 to 3 1 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Estrangela. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 4 The codex 
apparently belonged at one time to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in 
Nitria. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Psalm 50: 1-12. 

1 An. Hegirae 260, which began on October 27, 873 A. D., and ended on October 
1 5, 874 A. D. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. dr., Part I, pp. 120 ff. (No. 
CLXX). 

3 The following are appended to the Psalms : Canticles from the Old and New 
Testaments, the Beatitudes, the Gloria in Excelsis, the Nicene Creed, and the Lord's 
Prayer. 

4 The name of the scribe is not given. 

5 In a partly erased note on fol. 1 , which apparently records the presentation of the 
codex to a monastery, " the holy Convent of the Mother of God " is mentioned. Since 
there is a Coptic note in the margin of fol. 6, this monastery was probably the Convent 
of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 



[121] 



PLATE LXXI 

913 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14579, fol. 86. 2 

Evagrius, Fourteen Selections; 3 Macarius of Egypt, An Exhortation; 
Isaiah of Scete, An Extract; 4 Gregory Nazianzen, Two Extracts; 5 John 
Chrysostom, Three Extracts; 6 and the Apophthegmata Patrum 7 and the 
Historia Monachorum. 8 

Vellum; 24 to 24.1 cm. X 16.1 cm.; 190 leaves; two columns; 27 to 34 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Hasan bar Thomas, and he was 
a native or resident of the village of r^AuioAux^ in the district of Harran. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Apophthegmata 
Patrum. For the Greek text of the contents of column 1 see Migne, Pair. 
Gr., LXV, col. 416. For the Greek text of the matter contained in column 
2 see Migne, op. cit., XXXIV, cols. 249 ff.; and LXV, col. 272. 

1 Adar, An. Graecorum 1224. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 815 ff. (No. 
DCCCVIII). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 815 f. 

4 For the title of this see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 816. 

5 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 816. 

6 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 816. 

7 The Apophthegmata Patrum are taken in part from a great collection entitled 
Histories of the Egyptian Monks and in part from miscellaneous collections. See 
Dom C. Butler in Texts and Studies, VI, 1, p. 94. The Historia Lausiaca, the Historia 
Monachorum, and the Apophthegmata Patrum were all attributed to Palladius by the 
Syrians. See Dom C. Butler in op. cit., VI, 1, p. 95. 

8 This is Version I of the Historia Monachorum. See Dom C. Butler in op. cit., VI, 
1, pp. 93 and 267. 



[122] 




913 A. D. 



Plate LXXI 






<&%ifeu 




























London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14579, folio 86 



Plate LXXII 



928-929 A. D. 






K-**o .^i»»!\ cis^ta i<Vi* i^x\;t<u>a»»\ 

«*** -*** ^&a titia^ ^>»i tc*c&^ bo0Al!a 
»^d»Sd* *>te *&a^ .baa- ,vd=nj£>*\ en^y^, 

t^'fauoba* w*«w<e!iU* «««(»iflopu9 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 1, folio 111 






PLATE LXXII 

928-929 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. i 



, fol. 



in. 



The Pentateuch according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.3 to 24.9 cm. X 15.1 to 17.2 cm.; 210 leaves; one column; 
30 to 34 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown 
and black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Elias, and the manuscript was 
written in the Convent of Mar Elias near Mosul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Leviticus 14: 19-32. 

1 An. Graecorum 1240. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit. 7 Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 1 ff. 



[123] 



935-936 A. D. 



PLATE LXXIII 

935-936 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14469, fol. 22. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 33.9 to 34.5 cm. X 25.7 cm.; 205 leaves; two columns; 20 to 
27 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black and brownish; 
Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named John, and the manuscript was 
written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria for the abbot Moses 
of Nisibis. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 20: 13-22. 

1 An. Graecorum 1247. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 75 f. (No. 

CXX). 



[124] 



Plate LXXIII 



*=>*! 



xa $Lj wiaS -a£^ 
•A^k* ^<i even tfntoa 






21 WL=M 



&£.'.*3-«. 



h,t 



*u 







^ 


} 


^ ^V* 3 


-li 



&<Nif^ 



ft »CAtft u^»? ^cjax^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14469, folio 22 



Plate LXXIV 



956 A. D. 



• •^— »2m •ailaa* m!»Wo «V^Vui *5l»^ 

cor. tcaaoA .sftuv^ ^&.& ^q» «L&q* 
«•»• -** •«&&& *Io 

odious >uW .<nutfs ^boA 7&t**.'o 
.Wuaaei »a&<? o&mj «jy«< lxs«4 •*»*» 



w 



ft t v.-4 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 14, folio 46 v. 



PLATE LXXIV 

956 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 14, fol. 46V. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 12.7 to 13.6 cm. X 8.9 to 10 cm.; 196 leaves; one column; 20 
to 23 lines to the page; columns ruled sometimes with ink and sometimes 
with a sharp point; ink black and brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name 
was Aksenaya (r<^fla*i<). 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 25: 6-16. 

1 Tammuz 7, An. Graecorum 1 267. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 47 ff. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[125] 



PLATE LXXV 

979-980 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 152, fol. 173V. 2 

Jacob of Edessa, The Book of the Vowel Points and Readings of the 
Old and the New Testament according to the Qarqaphensian Tradition; 3 
Severus of Antioch, On the Properties and Operations in Christ; 4 Jacob of 
Edessa, A Letter to George of Serug; id., On the Points; Thomas the Deacon, 
On the Names of the Points; Epiphanius, On the Names of the Points; id., 
On Weights; id., On Prophecy; Ephraem Syrus, A Metrical Discourse on 
the Composition of Man; and Seven Anonymous Works. 5 

Vellum; 28.5 to 29.4 cm. X 19.6 to 20.4 cm.; 207 leaves; two columns; 
27 to 35 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled sometimes with 
ink and sometimes with a blunt point; ink brown and black; Estrangela. 
The scribe was a deacon named David, and he was a native or resident of 
^•\ocd in the district of «*j*^.. The manuscript was written in the Convent 
of Mar Aaron in r^te^x in the district of rc^aflolo. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a work of Jacob of 
Edessa entitled The Book of the Vowel Points and Readings of the Old 
and the New Testament according to the Qarqaphensian Tradition, Sec- 
tion 53 (in the catalogue of the Assemanis), which treats of the vowel 
points and readings in the first and second parts of the works of Gregory 
Nazianzen. This section of Jacob's work has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1291. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 287 ff . 

3 This is a West-Syrian Masorah, and it contains fifty-three sections. The Asse- 
manis, who enumerate fifty-four, have omitted No. 34. For the titles of these sections 
see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, pp. 287 ff. 

4 This tractate was copied by a later hand. 

5 For the titles of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
p. 291. 



[126] 



979-980 A. D. 



Plate LXXV 



MCOC' 









'* MM* 

v • •• • 




o u 




.nL^ atoms 




Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 152, folio 173v. 



Plate LXXVI 



994 A. D. 




~ oj»— «cA O0.O3 ^*3 * 
















£* j^. ^ *6&ri* tAib* 



«£*1> 














Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark 
Cod. 25, folio 115 



PLATE LXXVI 

994 A. D. 1 
Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark, Cod. 25, fol. 115. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 43.9 to 44.2 cm. X 29.6 to 30.7 cm.; 228 leaves; two columns; 
23 to 29 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela. The scribe's name was Gabriel, and the manuscript was written 
in the Convent of the Forty Holy Martyrs on the Dry River in the district 
of Melitene. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 4: 42-5: 7. 

1 Ab 10, An. Graecorum 1305. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 



[127] 



PLATE LXXVII 

999-1000 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 39, fol. 19. 2 

A Lectionary of the Old and the New Testament mostly according to 
the Peshitta Version. 3 

Vellum; 27.4 to 27.7 cm. X 20.2 to 20.6 cm.; 139 leaves; one column; 
22 to 32 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brownish; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Romanus. 4 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Deuteronomy 33: 14-16 and 
Joshua 3: 7-15. 

1 An. Graecorum 131 1. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 1 54 ff . (No. 
CCXXIV). 

3 A few lessons at the beginning are taken from the LXX and the Harclean 
version. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[128] 



1 



999-1000 A. D. 



*&&S»» oix»5 «K *&£ «&na *&a& £& 



Plate LXXVII 



m - *:• 









vStoa^n *&aB£«» ^Lun^f mZ&& Vjmt^ 




10 0001 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12139, folio 19 



Plate LXXVIII 






t&^^sfitoa^ 



1007 A. D. 

i 






*■? 






• * 



PLATE LXXVIII 

1007 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12148, fol. 104. 2 

A Choral Service Book for the Whole Year (Part I). 3 
Vellum; 37.7 to 39.1 cm. X 31.4 to 32.2 cm.; 233 leaves; two columns; 
23 to 37 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 
The scribe's name was Yeshu' bar Andrew, and he was a native or resident 
of Hisn Zaid in Mesopotamia. The manuscript was written in the house 
of Abu € Al! Zakariya (^vii^ chief (?) of the Tagritans (^ibvi^Jn).* 
The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 
The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a service for the 
Nativity of Our Lord. This service has apparently not been published. 

1 Shebat 25, An. Graecorum 13 18. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, ov. cit., Part I, pp. 264 ff. (No. 
CCCXXI). 

3 For a list of the various services contained in the codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y 
Part I, pp. 264 f . 

4 The word after ^i>^\ is illegible. In Add. MS. 12146 (No. CCCXIX), 
which is also the work of Yeshu' bar Andrew, Abu *Ali Zakariya is called ' chief ' 
(r^x***) of the Tagritans; and r£xj>"\ is what one would expect after ^u^uA in Add. 
MS. 1 2148 (No. CCCXXI). The word in question, however, looks more like ^ a i&^a\ 
repeated. See W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, p. 265. 




[129] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12148, folio 104 



1081 A. D. 



Plate LXXIX 



PLATE LXXIX 

1 08 1 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12144, fol. 2o8v. 2 

A Catena Patrum on the Greater Part of the Old and the New 
Testament. 3 

Vellum; 36.8 to 37.3 cm. X 31.2 to 32.2 cm.; 233 leaves; two columns; 
36 to 49 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Samuel, and the manu- 
script was written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Gazarta, in the 
region of Alexandria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the commentary on 
the end of Matthew and the beginning of John. The work has apparently 
not been published. 

1 Adar 25, An. Graecorum 1392. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 908 ff. (No. 
DCCCLIII). 

3 This work was compiled by a certain Severus, a monk of Edessa, in 861 A. D. 
Ephraem Syrus and Jacob of Edessa are the chief authorities on the Old Testament, 
and John Chrysostom is the principal authority on the New Testament. In addition to 
these the following writers are quoted: Athanasius; Basil of Caesarea; Cyril of Alex- 
andria; Daniel of Salah; Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite; Epiphanius of Cyprus; Euse- 
bius of Caesarea; George, Bishop of the Arabs; Gregory Nazianzen; Hippolytus; 
Isidore of Pelusium; Jacob of Serug; John of Lycopolis; Marutha, Bishop of Tagrit; 
Philoxenus of Mabbug; Phocas of Edessa; and Severus of Antioch. 







~3«a«S(Ss 






r*<m?^f*&mi*~s^jifr 



















7 Tvnnq rectos Joa«|«n»r& eutun 
»«n«W\»i5? luJt&sa *£»*»****— 

^- jP'^^J^?' 1 Ww»K m^K^m 



^>n»rV 



[130] 



YlXajCQ^ 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12144, folio 208 v. 



Plate LXXX 



1089 A. D. 




, 






^^ r&ye&s Ja^ j^ : rs£><U€l<\<33 



• • 







if • 











London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14490, folio 68 



PLATE LXXX 

1089 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14490, fol. 68. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 22.6 to 23 cm. X 16.8 to 17.4 cm.; 276 leaves; one column; 
18 to 25 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Samuel bar Cyriacus, and he 
was a native or resident of Niraba in the district of Ma'dan in " the land 
of the East." The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in the region of Alexandria. 3 The codex is in part a palimpsest, 
the lower writing being a Syriac translation of the works of Galen and the 
commentary of Gesius in a Serta hand of the ninth or tenth century. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 9: 21-28. 

1 llul 19, An. Graecorum 1400. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, pp. 1 59 ff. (No. 
CCXXV). 

3 This monastery was in Gazarta near Alexandria. 

4 Dr. Wright ascribes the lower writing to the eighth or ninth century. See W. 
Wright, of. cit. y Part I, p. 161. 



[131] 



PLATE LXXXI 

1 138 A. D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 51, fol. 90. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 24.5 to 24.9 cm. X 17.1 to 17.6 cm.; 118 leaves; two columns; 
18 to 23 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela, 
The scribe's name was Romanus, and the manuscript was written in the 
Syrian Convent in Jerusalem. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 3: 13-20. 

1 Ab 25, An. Graecorum 1449. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., pp. 16 ff. 



[l3 2 ] 



1138 A. D. 



Plate LXXXI 



2S •° 9 * a ^' «*■*■«■» 



0*01 



3 ^•^w^rZZLA^ w 
















Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 51, folio 90 



Plate LXXXII 



1149 A. D. 



•«J9dlt *»90^ OCD^ 

^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^" ^^^^^^ ^ ^ 














•o 




4 

19 *M 4*1*0019 







PLATE LXXXII 

1 1 49 A. D. 1 

Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark, Cod. 27, fol. 58. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 25.3 to 25.6 cm. X 17.5 to 18.2 cm.; 138 leaves; two columns; 
14 to 22 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 
The scribe's name was Sahda, and he was a native or resident of Edessa, 
The manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Simeon the Pharisee, 
which was also called the Convent of St. Mary Magdalene, in Jerusalem. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 9: 22-28. 

1 llul 5, An. Graecorum 1460. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 



Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark 
Cod. 2 7, folio 58 



[133] 






1177 A. D. 



Plate LXXXIII 



PLATE LXXXIII 

1 177 A. D. 1 

London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq., Cod. Syr. 3, fol. 90V. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 39.5 to 40 cm. X 30.8 to 31 cm.; 229 leaves; two columns; 21 
to 27 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 
The manuscript was written in the Church of Mar Thomas the Aposde. 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 7: 10-19. 

1 Tammuz, An. Graecorum 1488. The day of the month is not given. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 Neither the location of this church nor the name of the scribe is given. 



[134] 








3 JO^Jlp^ 




%J 














^ *£x» ^i 




***) 




9 CKHO* 



• 2 



London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq. 
Cod. Syr. 3, folio 90v. 



Plate LXXXIV 



1191 A. D. 



i'4 



.6C^ O09 ^iMO ^HflX 9U1M ^b^ 

«C^£ oVWo sA»* • /y WSano^ 
owoaW* /'mi ok ooo) vino • v^3^ 
Vpo\ WttiWo oCdXls. 0^ , / Am 

.<*ii©ocsa9 *&&M*%>£*o. juU 

♦ *•♦*• * www 



I 



PLATE LXXXIV 

1 191 A.D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 40, fol. 114. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 15.7 cm. X 11 cm.; 232 leaves; one column; 20 and 21 lines 
to the page; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. The 
scribe was a priest named Yeshu bar John, and he was a native or resident 
of Romana Castra. The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. 
Mary Deipara in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 1 : 57-67. 

1 Nisan 13, An. Graecorum 1502. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., p. 14. 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 40, folio 114 



[i35] 



PLATE LXXXV 

1 192 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 



54, 



fol. 



124, 



The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 17.5 to 17.7 cm. X 12 to 12.5 cm.; 242 leaves; one column; 
22 and 23 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a sharp point; 
ink black; Estrangela. The scribe was a priest named Yeshu bar John, and 
he was a native or resident of Romana Castra. The manuscript was written 
in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 2: 38-47. 

1 The first Sunday in Nisan, An. Graecorum 1503. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op, cit., p. 20. 



[136] 



1192 A. D. 



Plate LXXXV 



I ^4 






^6oWb Jtoa» <*-* tUo .*nWo^ 



/ 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 54, folio 124 



Plate LXXXVI 






1195 A. D. 



i$9 



^^■^■^^.'.v .-.^■^^■^^ .^^^^■•^fc. |fa3>4ii9 • 



Wvju J6 .^hkal *£Jk£o •JStify 

f ^ja >^ba, >jol^ iA\\() » Ajgy^i 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 39, folio 112 



#a 



-■ 












.' 






PLATE LXXXVI 

1 195 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 39, fol. 112. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 17.8 cm. X 13 cm.; 265 leaves; one column; 17 to 19 lines to 
the page; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Estrangela. The 
scribe's name was Joseph, and the manuscript was written in the Convent 
of Mar Saliba Zakkaya (r£*^0 in Tur-AJbdin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 1 1 : 7-14. 

1 An. Graecorum 1506. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated 1195 A. D. After ^ tAw% the word x^a^o has been 
partly erased. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., p. 14. 



[137] 



PLATE LXXXVII 

1 202-1203 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 55, fol. 101. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 14.6 to 14.8 cm. X 10.9 cm.; 199 leaves; one column; 23 to 27 
lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; 3 ink 
black; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Abu l-Faraj bar Abraham, and he 
was a native or resident of Amida. The manuscript was written in the Con- 
vent of Mar Elias in the district of Amida. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 4: 6-18. 

1 An. Graecorum 1514. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit. y p. 20. 

3 Sometimes the lines also are ruled with lead. 









1202-1203 A. D. Plate LXXXVII 







Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 55, folio 101 



[138] 



Plate LXXXVIII 



1203 A. D. 



' 













Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 31, folio 152 



PLATE LXXXVIII 

1203 A. D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 31, fol. 152. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epis- 
tles (including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 25.4 cm. X 17.1 to 18.3 cm.; 243 leaves; two columns; 33 lines 
to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Acts 23: 4-18, 

1 Nisan 3, An. Graecorum 1514. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., pp. 12 f. 

3 The name of the scribe has been erased. According to Zotenberg the copyist was 
a monk named Theodore bar Abu '1-Faraj of Salah in Tur- e Abdin. See H. Zotenberg, 
oj?. cit., p. 13. The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[l39] 






PLATE LXXXIX 

1217-1218 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 46, fol. 152. 2 

Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles (including 
Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 23 to 24 cm. X 18 to 18.5 cm.; 190 leaves; two columns; 21 to 
24 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a sharp point; ink 
black and brown; Estrangela. The scribe was a deacon named Simeon, and 
he was a native or resident of r£\Wte^. The manuscript was written in 
the Convent of Mar Ananias near Mardin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Colossians 1 : 3-14. 

1 An. Graecorum 1529. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., p. 15. 



[140] 



1217-1218 A. D. 



1 Igr « 



Plate LXXXIX 



v# 



¥§m* $g$. 



frag. 









' 
















•ft 




ItOe 

^jj^o >. 4&0W? &&*!2a Ubss^- 



~A^W$«^ 






■^--A'laiBR— 








Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 46, folio 152 



Plate XC 



1222 A. D. 



Ham A^o \*°*ajwj 





^ATo WJoi.Criloit 
m^% Jjtiia ^o^ 3 

«orxu oiro^ v^?^ 

o£nt *&o> •&*»*»' .§• v^*^W l t , 4ftS p 
• Ol&l U?*^ *iMMU ****+# ** W 



■ 






Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark 
Cod. 28, folio 111 



PLATE XC 

1222 A. D. 1 

Jerusalem, Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark, Cod. 28, fol. in. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Vellum; 25.8 to 26.2 cm. X 20.2 to 20.7 cm.; 201 leaves; two columns; 
26 and 27 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Estrangela; miniatures. 3 The scribe was a priest named Bacchus, and he 
was a native or resident of the East. The manuscript was written in the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Edessa. 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Mark 14: 13-16 and Luke 
7: 36-40. 

1 Second Kanun 31, An. Graecorum 1533. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 For reproductions of these miniatures see W. H. P. Hatch, Greek and Syrian 
Miniatures in Jerusalem (Cambridge, Mass., 1931), Plates LXIV-LXXI. See supra, 
p. 22. 



[141] 



1230 A. D. 



Plate XCI 



PLATE XCI 

1230 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 8729, fol. 65* 

Lessons and Prayers. 

Vellum; 40.2 to 40.4 cm. X 28.6 to 29.5 cm.; 247 leaves; two columns; 
26 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black and 
brown; Estrangela. The scribe's name was Bacchus bar Matthew, and he 
was a native or resident of the village of runcu* Au:d in the district of 
Mosul. The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara, 
which was called r^oi^r^ 5u:a , in Edessa. The codex once belonged to 
the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Luke 18: 2-8 and Matthew 
18:19 and 20 and 16: 21. 

1 Tammuz 29, An. Graecorum 1541. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Rosen and Forshall (1838), or in 
that of Wright (1870-1872), or in the list of Margoliouth (1899). It was acquired 
by the Museum after 1899. 



[142] 



•' 



• 



U* 



aria *vu*^si 



•J&Coa 



i* 










mem *l>x£m 






_s^_* *.x> 














London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 8729, folio 65 



Plate XCII 



1251 A. D. 



y^crnSLo 







%0*uogrf Aun 

mia*^ -*o»4xo J&da fix* 





London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17256, folio 98 



PLATE XCII 

1 25 1 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17256, fol. 98.* 

A Choir Book containing the Psalms and Canticles according to the 
Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 23.5 to 23.8 cm. X 17.1 to 17.4 cm.; 132 leaves; one column; 
1 5 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 
The scribe's name was Bacchus, and the manuscript was written in the Con- 
vent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Psalm 105: 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 
22, 23, 24, 25, and 27. 

1 llul 16, An. Graecorum 1562. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit, Part I, pp. 141 ff. (Nos. 
CCVIII and CCIX). The manuscript is in two parts, the first consisting of folia 1-82 
and the second of folia 83-132. 



[143] 



1255 A. D. 



Plate XCIII 



PLATE XCIII 

1255 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14686, fol. 169. 2 

A Jacobite Lectionary for the Festivals of Our Lord for the Whole Year, 
Part I. 

Paper; 25.7 to 25.9 cm. X 17 to 17.8 cm.; 208 leaves; two columns; 18 
lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; Estrangela. 
The scribe's name was Bacchus, and the manuscript was written in the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Zechariah 8: 4-9. It is taken 
from the Peshitta version. 

1 Uul 27, An. Graecorum 1566. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 169 ff. (No. 
CCXXVIII). 





[144] 



•&&u& *&» A^o *«gioi 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14686, folio 169 



Plate XCIV 



1567-1568 A. D. 



•: -.« -"fV.' •' '•'" 



wmmam 










•. ■ ■■■..• 
1 



our -Vtof&cm A» 













<lu9 % Y»fl*3>» ****** 



Zi^5y«ja*4..o»¥t ■ "Sfc °S? J8S1 



•t« 




jQlOpftf 



■\: 



Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek 
Cod. Syr. 20 (Sachau 236), folio 141 v. 



PLATE XCIV 

1 567-1 568 A.D. 1 
Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Syr. 20 (Sachau 236), fob 141 v. 2 

A Hymnal for the Feast Days and Holy Days of the Whole Year. 3 
Vellum; 44 cm. X 32 cm.; 292 leaves; two columns; 33 lines to the 

column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink pale black; 

Estrangela. The scribe's name was Salibiin or Saliba. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a hymn appointed for 

Monday in Holy Week. This hymn has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1879. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see E. Sachau, op. cit., I, pp. 66 ff. 

3 For the contents of the work see E. Sachau, op. cit., I, pp. 66 ff. 

4 He calls himself <^rj.»A^ on fol. 259V. The name of the place where the 
manuscript was written is not given, but the codex came from Tur-'Abdin. Professor 
Sachau says : " Durch diese unverdachtigen Angaben erfahren wir die fur die syrische 
Palaographie sehr bemerkenswerthe Thatsache, dass in den Schluchten des Tur- 
'Abdin sich das Pergament als Schreibmaterial und die Estrangelo-Schrift um mehrere 
Jahrhunderte langer erhalten haben als in den Ebenen Mesopotamiens und Syriens." 
See E. Sachau, op. cit., I, pp. 74 f . The present writer has seen some excellent speci- 
mens of Estrangela writing executed by the monks of the Syrian Orthodox Convent 
of St. Mark in Jerusalem. 



[145] 



PLATE XCV 

731-732 A. D. 1 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University, Semitic Museum, Cod. 
Syr. 115, fol. 18. 2 

The Gospel of St. John according to the Harclean Version; and the 
Masorah on this Gospel. 3 

Vellum; 11.1 to 11.5 cm. X j.j to 8.1 cm.; 87 leaves; one column; 14 
to 17 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Sertl 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 5 : 3-7. 

1 The date is given as K^Ao (sic) r +salo JbJi(. But the letters r ^a are in an 
erasure, and the ink is black. The }, which has been inked over by the corrector, 
was the first letter of the word which originally stood in this place; and the word 
must have been either ^-i^^H or ^J^jlJ. The space occupied by the erasure is large 
enough to contain five or six letters. If t *„N^>} is read, the date is 731-732 A. D.; 
whereas (-AjlJ would give 751-752 A. D. The manuscript, however, was written 
" in the days of Mar Athanasius the patriarch and Mar Isaac the bishop." Athanasius 
III was patriarch of Antioch from 724 to 739-740 A. D., when he was succeeded by 
John II, who died in the year 754. See J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 
1 71 9-1 728), II, p. 338. Therefore the date as given by the scribe must have been 
&Ato ^-^^J J^M, i.e. An. Graecorum 1043, or 731-732 A. D. "Mar Isaac the 
bishop " was doubtless the Isaac who was chosen by Athanasius III to be bishop of 
Harran, and who succeeded John II as patriarch of Antioch. See J. S. Assemani, 
of. cit.y II, pp. 338 f. If the correction ^co(, which should be ^jmN , is read, the 
date is 71 1-7 12 A. D. At this time, however, Elias, the predecessor of Athanasius III, 
was patriarch of Antioch. See J. S. Assemani, of. cit., II, p. 337. The month and 
the day of the month are not given. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 The Masorah (foil. 83-87) gives the proper pointing of selected verses in the 
Gospel. It begins with 1: 1 and ends with 21: 15. The subscription reads thus: 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[146] 



731-732 A. D. 



Plate XCV 



Am fc*^, .J^, ko^.;^ 
Wjf? *&1*»^ wh£> -Am 

"^<**tui*a,&ok .//ttWito '/am 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University, Semitic Museum 
Cod. Syr. 115, folio 18 



Plate XCVI 



790 A. D. 



^4 oz&o* .jjtaa Jh&*lk»\&~ «&<n Wo ..dU!»*~ 
•oiSbo^w^a> wj ^i> ^Lm> ZcuM3l. flatus JLamj Mb /*agi 

iU rf.l &» loA \l%^*> && % '} .Ul\o> 

m» %?.l^jk baJb o/ i»»» tk^a ull <*po'*i tub 
yja vJiao 'Uso*d> \w«A )&om -^N\3*/» J&a© bty 
?**&>> IaJ» If ^t JU iX)b Lll MV> j>^> 

W- a* -V - r^ iV^ i^ 3 *°- A» »A> ^1 

.^ollc *Wt^» t>&0 V iV &V JUftfc. Vo ?! 

JfeAo^jaL y, yAwol) ^ »Aa> fJU U tal* .lap* % 






PLATE XCVI 

790 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14548, fol. 40. 2 

Gregory Nazianzen, Thirty Discourses. 3 

Vellum; 25.4 to 25.7 cm. X 17.6 to 18.6 cm.; 187 leaves; one column; 
2 3 t0 33 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe was a deacon named Abraham. 4 This is one of the codices 
which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria by Moses 
of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's discourse 
entitled Et? rbv Trarepa o-LcoTrcovra Sia rf/v TrXrjyrjp rrjs x^^C 7 !** F° r the 
Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr. y XXXV, cols. 956 f. 

1 Tammuz, An. Graecorum 1 101. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 434 ff. (No. 
DLVIII). 

3 These discourses were translated in Cyprus in the year 624 by Paul the Abbot, 
who was also known as Paul of Edessa. For a list of them see W. Wright, op. cit., 
Part II, pp. 434 f . 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 






[147] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14548, folio 40 



PLATE XCVII 

816 A.D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14582, fol. 18. 2 

Extracts from the Pauline Epistles (very imperfect); Palladius, The 
Historia Lausiaca (extracts from Part I); Ephraem Syrus, The Testament 
(abridged); Isaiah of Scete, Five Selections; 3 Macarius of Egypt, Seven 
Letters; 4 Evagrius, Five Selections; 5 John of Lycopolis, 6 A Discourse and 
a Letter; 7 Theophilus of Alexandria, A Discourse on the Separation of the 
Soul from the Body; Isaac of Antioch, A Metrical Discourse; Philoxenus 
of Mabhug, Five Extracts; 8 Ephraem Syrus, A Funeral Discourse; The 
Creed of Severus of Antioch; Gregory the Monk, An Extract; Palladius, 
The Life of Serapion; Jacob of Serug, 9 A Metrical Discourse on the Dead; 
John Chrysostom, An Extract on not Receiving the Eucharist Carelessly; 
Dioscorus the Monk, An Admonition before Receiving the Eucharist; Cyril 
of Alexandria, An Extract; and Basil, An Extract from the Commentary 
on the Psalms. 

Vellum; 19.7 to 20.2 cm. X 12.7 to 13.4 cm.; 261 leaves; 10 one column; 
18 to 25 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Serta. The manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar 
Michael, which was in the Desert of Mareia (jsx^^o) in Egypt. 11 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Historia Lausiaca 
of Palladius, XIX. For the Greek text see Dom C. Butler in Texts and 
Studies, VI, 2, pp. 59 f.; and Migne, Patr. Gr. y XXXIV, col. 1066. 

1 Shebat 8, An. Graecorum 11 27. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 692 ff. (No. 
DCCLII). 

8 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 693. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 693 f. 

5 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 694. 

6 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called "the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corf us Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

7 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 694. 

8 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 694. 

9 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

10 Folia 190-252 are written in a large Estrangela hand and are earlier than the rest 
of the codex. Dr. Wright ascribes them to the sixth or seventh century. See W. 
Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 692. 

11 The name of the scribe is not given. 

[148] 



816 A. D. 



Plate XCVII 



09- 



«V»/o >«pM> v^/ 1&&0 *l can ^*» 
.cafikM ^ N4>t fV 4»M» )b/ 

Nwk toto ]d M 4& V ^A*?* 

J&> \m4 Waff \i sVbu'fy %» 
\A^« ctaja* VdA VzsJp >^Ait Mfc^St 

Us* ^» >SaJ 1 ?»£>«* !^» A assSiu 

*sA> J»tm Ioi& Ouaito *»w>t 6fcas^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14582, folio 18 



Plate XCVIII 






OUbf 



«w./ mAo *=»!* ♦*•» «af» Xil^lit a 







823 A. D. 
.&&& Jam JSa^ifo **& •=»» -£ »>« 

.,_^090d&j&bl V^ /*aM rf^^&O 

2#sip./fcs* > oJB^ ^ r*»> >^> 

•$!» jt»'£» vh*m oa,> IJiso M\ -ty&i 
/**» o^Amo^ao jotrt /wis •&*» «ri 







m ^}\&&y.Jx>>$»Ki JW»V»» 




-ate) 









rf± Jem S&iJpif 



/JOTOJ VM6J/J -4-^ff.^* 



m 





gl& 






7 .w* >£.•>«&*/«, a^->&.-.-4 ^fe^saMf^^^i 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14623, folio 46 



PLATE XCVIII 

823 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14623, fol. 46* 

John of Lycopolis, 3 Eight Discourses; 4 Evagrius, Three Discourses; 5 id., A Dia- 
logue of a Teacher and a Pupil; id., An Admonition; id., Two Letters; Jacob of 
Serug, 6 Two Letters; 7 Ephraem Syrus, A Letter to the Monks Who dwelt in the 
Mountains; John Chrysostom, Nine Extracts; 8 Ephraem Syrus, Two Discourses 
(extracts); 9 The Catholic Epistles of the New Testament according to the Peshitta 
Version (1, 2, and 3 John, 1 and 2 Peter, James, and Jude); Jacob of Serug, 6 A 
Metrical Discourse on the Prophet Jonah; Severus of Antioch, A Discourse on the 
Trisagion; id., Five Extracts from the Homiliae Cathedrales; 10 Basil, An Extract from 
the Regulae brevius tractatae; u id., A Letter to the Recluses; John Chrysostom, 
A Consolatory Discourse for the Dead; Abraham JLj^slJ, 12 Three Short Selections; 13 
Basil, Extracts from an Epistle on the Ascetic Life; Nilus the Monk, A Discourse; 
Philoxenus of Mabbug, A Letter to Patricius of Edessa; Evagrius, A Treatise on the 
Distinction of the Passions; Cyril of Alexandria, Two Extracts; 14 Jacob of Serug, 6 
Two Canticles on Penitence; and Isaiah of Scete, An Extract. 

Vellum; 26.6 to 27.2 cm. X 20.8 to 21.7 cm.; 88 leaves; two columns; 35 to 51 
lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. The scribe's name was Aaron, and he was a native or resident of Dara in 
Mesopotamia. The manuscript was written in the Thebaid of Egypt. It is palimpsest 
throughout, the lower writing being the works of Ephraem Syrus in a small Estrangela 
hand of the sixth century. 15 The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a metrical discourse on the 
Prophet Jonah by Jacob of Serug. See P. Bedjan, Homiliae selectae Mar-Jacobi 
Sarugensis (Paris and Leipzig, 1905-19 10), IV, pp. 485 ff. 

1 Ilul, An. Graecorum 1134. The day of the month is not given. The manu- 
script is also dated An. Hegirae 204, which should be 208. The latter year began on 
May 16, 823 A. D., and ended on May 3, 824 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 762 ff . (No. 
DCCLXXXI). 

3 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 762 f. 

5 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 763. 

6 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

7 For the addressees of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 763. 

8 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 763 f. 

9 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 764. 

10 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 764. 

11 On this see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 764. 

12 He was known as JL>^2lJ among the Jacobites and as JL^aio among the 
Nestorians. 

[l49] 



PLATE XCIX 

823 AD. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 92, fol. 49.* 

Burial Offices. 3 

Vellum; 16.9 to 17. 1 cm. X 12.4 to 12.8 cm.; 130 leaves; one column; 
21 to 24 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. The scribe's name was Theodore. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a Madrasha of 
Ephraem Syrus (No. I). See Petrus Benedictus and S. E. Assemani, Sancti 
Patris Nostri Ephraem Syri Opera Omnia (Rome, 1 737-1 743), III (Syriace 
et Latine), pp. 226 f. 5 

13 These selections are here wrongly attributed to Evagrius. 

14 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 765. 

15 Dr. Wright also ascribes the lower writing to the sixth century. See W. Wright, 
op. cit., Part II, p. 766. 

1 First Teshrin 8, An. Graecorum 1 135. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 494 ff. 

3 They consist of (Lo, !lo;o^o, JLjlV^o, J'^ojbo, JJl<^», and U-+&. These composi- 
tions are attributed to Ephraem Syrus, Isaac of Antioch, and Jacob of Serug. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

5 Petrus Benedictus, a member of the Society of Jesus, was a Maronite scholar 
whose Arabic name was Butrus Mubarrak. 






823 A. D. 



Plate XCIX 



f 4'y 



13 «^^^^M*t.<Jutt-,o9&/o9»i/ia&f 



OkM 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 92, folio 49 



[150] 






Plate C 



839 A. D. 






^o . co» po> iyao , '&£» .'liwfeo $»■£ 
;»£*» dv*w i/bol :*o>oXL/o TQacCb* 

*o ,&»;&» w •*** .<** f*° *fc 



PLATE C 

839 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 172 15 (foil. 5 and 6), fol. 5V. 2 

The Book of the Philosophers. 3 

Vellum; 18.6 to 18.7 cm. X 13 to 13.5 cm.; 2 leaves; one column; 22 
and 23 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. The scribe's name was Arabi (--»(>!), and he was connected with 
the Convent of Qarqaphta. The manuscript was written in this monastery. 

About one-third of the passage reproduced in the plate is published by 
Dr. Wright in o-p. cit., Part III, p. 1164. 

1 Nisan 7, An. Graecorum 1 1 50. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, o-p. cit., Part III, pp. 11 64 f. 
(No. DCCCCXCIII). 

3 There are two fragments. One is on ova-ta and the other on eTSos. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17215 (foil. 5 and 6), folio Sv. 









[I5>1 



844-845 A. D. 



Plate CI 



PLATE CI 

844-845 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 53, fol. 176. 2 

Gregory Nazianzen, Thirty Discourses. 3 

Vellum; 28.2 to 28.5 cm. X 19.7 to 20.5 cm.; 206 leaves; two columns; 
35 to 39 lines to the column (first hand), and 32 to 38 lines to the column 
(second hand); columns and top lines ruled with lead; 4 ink black; 
Estrangela and Serta. 5 The second scribe was a stylite named Ephraim, and 
he was a native or resident of Kephar-Tauretha near Zeugma. 6 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's discourse 
entitled E19 tov aytov lepojxdprvpa Kvirpiavov, VI- VIII. For the Greek 
text see Migne, Patr. Gr. y XXXV, cols. 1 176 f. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 1 56. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. ciU, Part II, pp. 423 ff. (No. 
DLV). 

3 These discourses were translated in Cyprus in the year 624 by Paul the Abbot, 
who was also known as Paul of Edessa. For a list of them see W. Wright, op. cit., 
Part II, pp. 423 ff. 

4 In the latter half of the manuscript the bottom lines also are ruled with lead. 

5 The codex is the work of two scribes. Folia 1-42 were written by the first hand, 
and folia 43-206 by the second. The first copyist wrote in Serta. The second began 
in Serta, but almost immediately (fol. 43V.) he changed to Estrangela. He continued 
to write in Estranged as far as fol. 1 52, when he reverted to Serta. For a specimen of 
the Estrangela hand see Plate LXVII. 

6 The name of the first scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was 
written are not given. 



[152] 











>*OJO*5 



f.VG. 










K f •'p.«*fa& # *&'o*&«S 




N <#SL£°, 







M&p too M^s^jfi 

p» J^&f Obi »J# itjxij i 

I ^»oi Vol *£luxibd*ia** 

oibao ^Atsas W2u<# 2i**{ 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12153, folio 176 



Plate CH 



850 A. D. 



I 






PLATE CII 

850 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14651, fol. 92. 2 

The Histories and Martyrdoms of Various Saints; 3 Athanasius, A Letter 
to the Virgins Who went and prayed in Jerusalem and returned; 4 Jacob 
of Serug, 5 Three Discourses; 6 Ephraem Syrus, A Discourse on Elijah and 
the Widow of Zarepath; Jacob of Serug, 5 A Discourse on Pride; Ephraem 
Syrus, A Discourse on the Sinful Woman; Jacob of Serug, 5 A Discourse on 
the Ten Virgins; and Isaac of Antioch, A Funeral Discourse on Priests and 
Deacons. 

Vellum; 20.2 to 20.9 cm. X 12.6 to 13.2 cm.; 217 leaves; one column; 
19 to 26 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brownish; Serta. The scribe was a priest named Job. 7 The manuscript 
is a palimpsest, the lower writing being the Gospels according to the Peshitta 
version in an Estrangela hand of the fifth or sixth century. 8 This is one 
of the codices which were brought to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in 
Nitria by Moses of Nisibis in 932 A. D. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Athanasius's Letter to 
the Virgins Who went and prayed in Jerusalem and returned. This letter 
has apparently not been published, and it does not seem to be extant in 
Greek. 

1 Nisan 23, An. Graecorum 1161. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1101 ff. (No. 
DCCCCXLVffl). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1 101 f. 

4 This letter is inserted between two of the histories of saints. 

5 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

6 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, p. 1 102. 

7 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

8 Dr. Wright ascribes the lower writing to the sixth or seventh century. See W. 
Wright, op. cit., Part III, p. 1103. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14651, folio 92 



[i53] 






PLATE GUI 

865-866 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14668 (foil. 40-43), fol. 40V. 2 

Part of the History of Pachomius; 3 Extracts from the Apophthegmata 
Patrum; 4 and Isaiah of Scete, Fragments. 

Vellum; 22.2 to 24.6 cm. X 16.9 to 17.3 cm.; 4 leaves; two columns; 
27 to 32 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown and black; Serta. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the end of the History 
of Pachomius. 6 The work has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 11 77. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 769 (No. 
DCCLXXXIV). 

3 This fragment is one of a group of miscellaneous documents. See Dom C. Butler 
in Texts and Studies, VI, 1, p. 94. 

4 These extracts are part of a miscellaneous collection of Apophthegmata. See 
Dom C. Butler in op. cit., VI, 1, p. 94. 

5 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 

6 The last six lines in the second column are from the Apophthegmata Patrum. 



[154] 



865-866 A. D. 



Plate CIII 








^Ui 






«»*rf>^asi»i 



#* 




--AtliifitW 2 



H"* 



7 A^*^ !&«$*£ 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14668 (foil. 40-43), folio 40v. 



Plate CIV 



866 A. D. 






m^^M* .^j6^So^ .(to**?**-*** W* 

x£*/» /JA* «^ ^S JA*~*'> fib* i/>y Aa=» ^ <** 
P>*3o ^o^joao? &oi^\ajja&>&» Ak f>^.» £a/o . £» 

^ifixa VjNmom* o*>*. » £*? j&a^ :AU-o> &»>& 
>^W> W»Va *y ^aa \*j»>Aj£± m .XLi^Nv,! Afto 

:&~~ Was <£/o» ^» J^ £*, .£* k2Ua Mi* 

>£<»/*>»/. feat &fc*>^ &J, ^\ w k*>&^ 
.^^tn ^a^o? 6J^»ft\o •/&£**» A./La\*>k £»£tf — 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14580, folio 37 



PLATE CIV 

866 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14580, fol. 37.* 

Evagrius, A Treatise on Foul Thoughts (a fragment); John of Lycopo- 
lis, 3 Letters, Discourses, and a Dialogue; 4 Philoxenus of Mabbug, A Letter 
to Patricius, a Monk of Edessa; and Jacob of Serug, 5 Six Metrical 
Discourses. 6 

Vellum; 22.7 to 23 cm. X 15.2 to 15.5 cm.; 149 leaves; one column; 
26 to 32 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. The manuscript was written in Edessa. 7 It once belonged to the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a discourse of John 
of Lycopolis On the Soul and the Distinctions of the Corporeal, Psychical, 
and Spiritual Passions of Men. This discourse has apparently not been 
published. 

1 Nisan 6, An. Graecorum 1177. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. tit., Part II, pp. 767 ff. (No. 
DCCLXXXIII). 

3 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the Journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. tit., Part II, pp. 767 f. 

5 Near the end of his life he became bishop of Batnan (Batnae) in the district of 
Serug, and hence he is also known as Jacob of Batnae. 

6 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. tit., Part II, p. 768. 

7 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[155] 



PLATE CV 

867-868 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 59, 



fol. 



27 IV. 



Severus of Antioch, Homiliae Cathedrales (Aoyot kmBpovioi), I-CXXV. 3 
Vellum; 36 to 36.7 cm. X 25.2 to 27 cm.; 313 leaves; two columns; 37 
to 42 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink black and brown; Serta. The scribe was a priest named Addai, and 
he was a native or resident of Amida. 4 The codex once belonged to the Con- 
vent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Severus's Homily 
No. CXVIII. This homily has apparently not been published. 

1 Only part of the date has survived : JLjcL^ vs.ii.lo ^^ . . . The colophon, 
however, states that the manuscript was copied in the days of the Patriarch John, 
the successor of Dionysius of Tell-Mahre. This was John III, who was patriarch of 
Antioch from An. Graecorum 11 58 to An. Graecorum 1185. See J. S. Assemani, 
Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 171 9-1 728), II, p. 348; M. Le Quien, Oriens Chris- 
tians (Paris, 1740), II, col. 1374; and W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 545. Hence 
originally the date must have been: jLsa^> v*JiXo ( *s^to JJb»o Jta_N hjjka, i. e. 
An. Graecorum 11 79. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 534 ff. 
(No. DCLXXXV). 

3 For the numbers and titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit, Part II, pp. 534 ff. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[156] 



867-868 A. D. 



Plate CV 






j^+y. j^^ax nv* .*o«j) f*a *< 

w»W <»<» n»<&j; Mp JUiil >i «. 

-07al^ <as^A &&. .J!i» 4aa *< 



■V.—,,™ ******* ;^i UO \i^^J31 

^/Aui .%jW^ fe, ^ ^ ^ 



'f 










ja©<. 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12159, folio 271v. 



Plate CVI 



874-875 A. D. 



SA Im4BJ *a*A Sou* 









•waaao Iocr, fc,. /day 
^•'saaA /da, ti 

V***&I*aJ >*•**. . Via; 

<£*!/ {da * Z-Vru'.vao 

*3Afl>fo .•&£» v^t-a 
^-oo> \flx*a*> joH], 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14650, folio 104 



PLATE CVI 

874-875 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14650, fol. 104. 2 

The Apophthegmata Patrum (a fragment); 3 Evagrius, Four Selections; 4 Extracts 
from the Historia Lausiaca; 5 The Historia Monachorum; 6 The History of the Virgin 
Andromeda; The History of an Excellent Virgin; 7 Eusebius, Four Extracts from the 
Ecclesiastical History; 8 The Martyrdom of Peter of Alexandria; The History of the 
Eight Youths Who were martyred at Ephesus; The History of the Blessed Sophia 
and Her Three Virgin Daughters; John of Antioch, Plerophoriae, or Testimonies and 
Revelations from God to the Saints concerning the Heresy of the Diphysites and the 
Transgression at Chalcedon; 9 The History of a Nun and concerning the Discipline for 
Which She was renowned; The History of Jacob the Wanderer; The History of Paul 
the Priest and His Disputation with Satan; Ephraem Syrus, A Discourse on Wizards 
and Charmers and Soothsayers, and on the End and Consummation; The Creed of 
Severus of Antioch; Simeon, Bishop of the Persian Christians, An Extract from a 
Letter or Account concerning the Himyarite Martyrs; John of Ephesus, 10 Thirteen 
Lives of Holy Men and Women; X1 id., Thirteen Extracts from the Ecclesiastical 
History; 12 The History of Hilaria, the Daughter of the Emperor Zeno; The History 
of the Blessed Onesima, the Daughter of the Kings of Egypt; and Athanasius, A 
Discourse on Virginity. 

Vellum; 25.2 to 26.5 cm. X 16.4 to 17.5 cm.; 235 leaves; two columns; 32 to 44 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black and brown; 
Serta. 13 The scribe's name was Simeon, and he was connected with the Convent of 
Mar Solomon near Dulichium. 14 The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. 
Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the tract entitled Plerophoriae, 
or Testimonies and Revelations from God to the Saints concerning the Heresy of 
the Diphysites and the Transgression at Chalcedon, Chapters XXIII and XXIV. The 
work has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 11 86. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, pp. no3ff. 
(No. DCCCCXLIX). 

3 The running title of these three leaves is IJLojLaJj JLl^j-J, and they are part of 
a miscellaneous collection of Apophthegmata. See Dom C. Butler in Texts and Studies, 
VI, 1, p. 94. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit, Part III, p. 1103. 

5 These extracts are taken from Version I of the Historia Lausiaca. See Dom C. 
Butler in of. cit., VI, 1, pp. 84 f. and 93. 

6 This is the complete text of Version II. See Dom C. Butler in of. cit., VI, 1, 
pp. 93 and 267. 

7 This history is taken from Version I of the Historia Lausiaca. See Dom C. Butler 
in of. cit., VI, 1, pp. 84 f. and 93. 

8 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, p. 1104. 

9 The author of this work was a priest, and he belonged to the gens Rufina. He 
was also bishop of Maiumas, which was near Gaza on the sea; and he was a disciple 
of Peter the Iberian. 

10 He was also known as John of Asia. 

11 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, pp. 1105 f. 

12 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, pp. no6f. 

13 Folia 1-8 and 30-68 are written in an Estrangela hand which Dr. Wright ascribes 
to the sixth or seventh century. See W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, p. 1103. 

14 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

[157] 






PLATE CVII 

876 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 67, fol. 81. 2 

John Chrysostom, A Discourse on Virginity and Repentance and Ex- 
hortation; Xystus of Rome, Select Sayings; Mark the Monk, Two Discourses 
on Exhortation and on the Spiritual Law; Macarius of Egypt, Four Letters; 3 
Macarius of Alexandria, A Hortatory Discourse on the Life of Christians; 
Evagrius, A Doctrinal Treatise; id., Thirteen Tracts and Exhortations on 
Various Subjects; 4 id., A Discourse addressed to Eulogius; id., A Hortatory 
Discourse; Philoxenus of Mabbug, A Letter to Patricius of Edessa; id., A 
Letter to a Disciple; id., Three Short Extracts on Prayer; Basil, Four Short 
Extracts; 5 id., A Discourse on the Observance of the Commands of the 
Gospel; John of Lycopolis, 6 A Discourse on Purity of Soul; id., Three Let- 
ters; id., Two Doctrinal Treatises; id., A Dialogue of a Teacher and His 
Pupil; Isaiah of Scete, Eleven Tracts; T Nilus the Monk, Select Sayings; 
Gregory Nazianzen, A Letter to a Man Who was Familiar with Pressing 
Trials; Philoxenus of Mabbug, A Letter to a Saintly Man Who turned 
from the Art of the Advocate to the Monastic Life; Abraham JLjkaj, 8 Three 
Short Selections; 9 A Letter of a Monk to a Fellow Monk; and Ephraem 
Syrus, Selections from the Book of Sentences. 

Vellum; 26 to 26.5 cm. X 17.3 to 18.4 cm.; 299 leaves; two columns; 
27 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 
black; Serta. 10 The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Dei- 
para in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a work of Macarius of 
Alexandria entitled A Hortatory Discourse on the Life of Christians. This 
work has apparently not been published. 11 

1 Second Kanun, An. Graecorum 1187. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 769 ff . 
(No. DCCLXXXV). 

8 For the addressees and titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 770. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 770 f. 

5 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 772. 

6 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and 
J. B. Chabot in the Journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 

7 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 773. 

8 He was known as JLiK^J among the Jacobites and as JL^bKj among the 
Nestorians. 

9 On these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 774. 

10 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 

11 There is much confusion between Macarius of Egypt and Macarius of Alexan- 
dria in literary tradition. The latter may not have left anything in writing. 

[158] 



876 A. D. 

^0 N3»J N &*aidt> 



Plate CVII 



&**01& &%*&»! «A»>* 

W%* g » » Aw. •/**£» 

»X£dfc) Uo Maim tto 



"<£ So . foery %saJbo 






(W 








fA»V *>U&*f **ie* 






*• . • 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12167, folio 81 



Plate CVIII 



876-877 A. D. 



<^sy JS4dZi-3 ^aTsuio. w^ft^ 
v-^do oooy mJAd /ail ^J.afciA, 






>^/^>Vft^A& tM$*?i <*%^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17130, folio 56v. 



PLATE CVIII 

876-877 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 30, fol. 56V. 2 

Funeral Services; 3 Funeral Sermons; 4 and Two Madrashe. 

Vellum; 20 to 20.2 cm. X 14.3 to 14.7 cm.; 86 leaves; one column; 22 
to 28 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Serta. The manuscript was written in the desert of Nitria for 
the Convent of St. Mary Deipara. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is 2 Samuel 1 : 17-25. It is part of 
a lesson appointed to be read at the funeral of a monk or lay person, and it 
is taken from the Peshitta version. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 188. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 392 f. (No. 
DXIII). 

3 Some of these services are for bishops, priests, and deacons; and others are for 
monks and lay persons. In them are included several madrashe, appropriate lessons 
from the Old and the New Testament, concluding hymns, and two litanies. 

4 The sermons were written by Jacob of Senig, Ephraem Syrus, and one who is 
called simply " the holy Mar Jacob." 

5 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[159] 



PLATE CIX 

883-884 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 188 19 (foil. 92-109), fol. io6v. a 

Severus of Antioch, John bar Aphtunaya, 3 etc., Hymns (Nos. 374-402); 
Antiphons to be chanted by the Priests before the Administration of the 
Holy Eucharist; and Upoo-fopiKoL 4 ' 

Vellum; 13.4 to 13.8 cm. X 9.5 to 9.8 cm.; 18 leaves; one column; 17 
to 21 lines to the page; columns ruled with lead; ink brown; Serta. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Upocr^opiKoi. 
These have apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1195. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part I, p. 340 (No. 
CCCCXXIII). 

3 Dr. Wright calls him har Aphtunaya (see op. cit., Part I, p. 340, col. 2; arid 
Part III, p. 1297, col. 2) and bar Aphtonya, and he says that Aphtonia was the name 
of John's mother (see A Short History of Syriac Literature, London, 1894, P- 84). 
M. R. Duval gives his name as bar Aphtonia (see La litterature syriaque, third ed., 
Paris, 1907, p. 359), whereas Professor Baumstark refers to him as Sohn des Aph- 
thonios (see Geschichte der syrischen Liter atur, Bonn, 1922, p. 181). 

4 These were hymns chanted by the choir before the reception of the Eucharist 

(j7rpou<f>opa). 

5 The name of the scribe, who was a native or resident of the village of Gadmin, 
has been erased; and that of a certain Simeon has been substituted for it. The name 
of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[160] 



883-884 A. D. 



Plate CIX 








) ***** ^J^^MM&^f 



: .--7T: UWi. f«^-.£. ~s.^*> 



kwfcU f$&9 l£*m£p <&&*> 
fa.^ir** oaf c&> fJ&f /JLaSuf 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 18819 (foil. 92-109), folio 106v. 



Plate CX 



885-886 A. D. 



rw • ^^ |l 1 • • * Mm ^1 * <^_ ^ 






2//o^^» .33ii^4^*. 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17194, folio 39v. 



PLATE CX 

885-886 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17194, fol. 



39V. 



The Book of the Demonstrations of the Holy Fathers. 3 

Vellum; 13.3 to 13.4 cm. X 8.6 to 8.9 cm.; 84 leaves; one column; 19 

to 25 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 

Serta. The scribe's name was Ignatius, and he was a native or resident 

of Mabbug. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Book of the 

Demonstrations of the Holy Fathers. The authority quoted is Jacob of 

Serug, who is mentioned on the preceding page. The work has apparently 

not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 197. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1872), Part II, pp. 1002 f. (No. 
DCCCLXII). 

3 This is a Catena Patrum. The following writers are quoted : Abba, the disciple 
of Ephraem Syrus; Addai; Athanasius; Basil; John Chrysostom; Clement of Rome; 
Cyril of Alexandria; Dionysius; Ephraem Syrus; Epiphanius; Eusebius; Evagrius; 
Gregory Nazianzen; Gregory of Nyssa; Hesychius; Hippolytus; Irenaeus; Isaac of 
Antioch; Isidore of Pelusium; Jacob of Serug; John of Lycopolis; Methodius; Palladius; 
Severian of Gabala; Theophilus the Monk; and Timotheus. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[161] 



PLATE CXI 

887-888 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14668 (fol. 46).* 

The Last Leaf of a Codex. 3 

Vellum; 21.6 cm. X 15 cm.; 1 leaf; two columns; 37 lines to the column; 
columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Serta. The scribe's name 
was Joseph, and he was a native or resident of Harran. The manuscript was 
written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The end of an extract from John of Lycopolis, 4 the subscription, the 
doxology, and the colophon are reproduced in the plate. The extract from 
John of Lycopolis has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 199. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part III, p. 1196 (No. 
MXVI). 

3 According to the subscription the manuscript contained the following : selections 
from the Scala Paradisi of John Climacus, two discourses of Mark the Monk, two 
discourses of Xystus, and extracts from John of Lycopolis. 

4 He is also known as John the Monk and John of Egypt, and he was sometimes 
called " the Seer of the Thebaid." He has been wrongly identified with John of 
Apamea. See W. Cureton, Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849), pp. 351 f.; and J. B. 
Chabot in the journal Asiatique, Dixieme Serie, VIII, pp. 259 ff. 



[162] 



887-888 A. D. 



Plate CXI 




^?»-#>. 







«»«i ^a .s'99 £.*£. ls»*x» sui 
ksi.Il. .Jhktaom*. 











**~~* 






.<***, 4^^ ^^ .^ - 










M^m 



it 



m- 









fe^^^-^^s^iaB/ Miff* 






.<-:**&? 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14668, (fol. 46) 



Plate CXII 






/>- 














iarJOlWWioi^o 



iJci 




A V 



J^omi^^B 



892-893 A. D. 




&-»< A.fi-^a> obi 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14515, folio 117 



PLATE CXII 

892-893 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14515, fol. 117. 2 

A Collection of Choral Services and Homilies for the Principal Festivals 
of the Whole Year, Vol. I. 1 

Vellum; 26 cm. X 17.8 to 18.3 cm.; 311 leaves; two columns; 27 to 40 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; Serta. 
The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Basil's treatise 
entitled Uepl vrjcrTeias, II, 2 f. For the Greek text see Migne, Patr. Gr., 
XXXI, cols. i88f. 

1 An. Graecorum 1204. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 240 ff. (No. 
CCCVI). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part I, pp. 240 ff. 

4 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[163] 






PLATE CXIII 

902-903 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 5021, fol. 6. 2 

Athanasius, The History of Anthony (a fragment); Hieronymus, The 
History of Paul of the Thehaid; and Anthimus, A Letter. 

Vellum; 16.5 to 16.9 cm. X 11.6 to 1 1.8 cm.; 34 leaves; one column; 
1 3 to 1 7 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe's name was Elisha, and he was a native or resident of 
Zuqenin near Amida. The manuscript was written in the inner desert of 
Abba Paul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Athanasius's History 
of Anthony. See P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum (Paris and 
Leipzig, 1 890-1 897), V, pp. inf. 

1 An. Graecorum 1214. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see G. Margoliouth, Descriptive List of Syriac 
and Karshuni Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1899), pp. 48 f. 



902-903 A. D. 



Plate CXIII 






<r& «»9 kft£ax» <4»laa*fes»1U lis* 
»lj» #?5 oS* 0! ./&il AS && 



London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 5021, folio 6 




[164] 



Plate CXIV 



927 A. D. 






i 



^0^0 



y£Jt~Joff OH 



k£UM3C 



**— J?* 3 *' #*w w^ *J£2p 









.A. 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17111, folio 31 



PLATE CXIV 

927 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 11, fol. 31. 2 

The Psalms according to the Peshitta Version; 3 Canticles from the Old 
and the New Testament; 4 and the Beatitudes. 

Vellum; 18.9 to 19 cm. X 15.2 to 15.5 cm.; 89 leaves; one column; 13 to 
23 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Serta. The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria. 5 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Psalms 51 : 10-19 an d 5 2: I- 5- 

1 lyar 1, An. Graecorum 1238. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 125 f. (No. 
CLXXVI). 

3 Psalm CLI, translated from the LXX, is added at the end of the collection. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, p. 125. 

5 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[165] 



PLATE CXV 

929 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 171 74, fol. i8v. 2 

c Anan-Isho f , A Collection of Apophthegmata Patrum. 3 
Vellum; 20.3 to 21 cm. X 15.6 to 16 cm.; 184 leaves; one column; 23 
to 30 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from 'Anan-Isho' 's Col- 
lection of Apophthegmata Patrum, Part I, Chapters IV and V on Weeping 
and Mourning for Sins and on Poverty. See P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et 
Sanctorum (Paris and Leipzig, 1 890-1 897), VII, pp. 495 f. 5 

1 Tammuz 25, An. Graecorum 1240. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part III, pp. 1074 ff. (No. 
DCCCCXXVIII). 

3 See Dom C. Butler in Texts and Studies, VI, 1, pp. 91 f. and 94. 

4 The name of the scribe has been erased, but he was a native or resident of 
Melitene. If the name of the place where the manuscript was written was given, it 
has perished. 

5 In Bedjan's edition Chapters IV and V on Weeping and Mourning for Sins 
and on Poverty are found in Part III. 



[166] 



929 A. D. 



Plate CXV 



§bt />iiu &>& , <A ^Vw> Uti -ro&jjcjg 
; jLl»*o . A j*> ^iSflfo Chu JI> **^m Uaa> >£<&b 



. ***** Gi^h§§^?&^jk^9:Mi!!&a& ?y f ' 
jjxo.^^j^Jocn^^ || Xafi» *rp?^> *^J*> °»* ^*. 9 



iJiriSa ./*o> ^^Jo .o*=»A,U b^a »» ^'*?4 
|<Js&» v***» V 9 ^ ^V*. &1 3lo Npa£* jit WW«| 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17174, folio 18 v. 



Plate CXVI 



932 A. D. 






3#* 



ipip 



«=*r 



«* . *j 



I ft 







&°W- 









c 











»>fJ$&**«P® 



,•*, « 






MM£f0 



SP 



"^#fv^^ȣ# 



"<S 







J^^#r 



Stocksund, Sweden 
Property of Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Wiren, Frag. XVIII (recto) 



PLATE CXVI 

932 A. D. 1 
Stocksund, Sweden, Property of Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Wiren, Frag. 

XVIII (recto). 2 

The Book of the Himyarites (fragments); and Timotheus Aelurus, A 
Treatise against the Council of Chalcedon (fragments). 

Paper; 21 cm. X 16.5 cm.; 3 58 fragments; 4 two columns; 24 to 29 lines 
to the column; 5 apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The scribe's name 
was Stephen bar Matthew, and the manuscript was written in the Church 
of Mar Thomas in Qaryathen Castra (lf-&&m r h^>\s>). 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Book of the 
Himyarites. See A. Moberg, The Book of the Himyarites , p. 43. 

1 Nisan 10, An. Graecorum 1243. 

2 For a description of these fragments see A. Moberg, The Book of the Himyarites 
in Skrifter Utgivna av Kungl. Humanistiska V etenska / pssamfundet i Lund, VII 
(1924); and On Some Syriac Fragments of the Book of Timotheos Ailuros against 
the Synod of Chalcedon (Lund, 1928). Through the kindness of Captain Nils 
Wallenius I was able to examine the fragments belonging to Mr. and Mrs. Wiren in 
New York in the summer of 1930. They were all found, together with parts of two or 
three other codices, in the binding of a manuscript. In a letter dated November 7, 
1933, I^ r - Moberg corrects his published statement concerning the contents of the 
codex in the binding of which the fragments were discovered. He says that it does 
not contain Jacobite eucharistic liturgies. 

3 The leaves w r ere originally about 26 cm. X about 16.5 cm. They were cut and 
pasted together by the binder of the codex in which they were found. 

4 Three of them are small pieces. See A. Moberg, The Book of the Himyarites, 
pp. xiii and xxiii. 

5 Originally there were from 25 to 3 1 lines in each column. 



[167] 



PLATE CXVII 

iooo A. D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 154, fol. i22v. a 

Old Canons (Jitin) for the Principal Feasts of the Year. 3 

Vellum; 21.7 to 22.4 cm. X 16.1 to 17.2 cm.; 195 leaves; two columns; 

23 to 29 lines to the column; apparently no ruling; ink black and brownish; 

Serta. The scribe's name was John bar Said, and he was a native or resident 

of the village of jXd in the district of Cyrus. The manuscript was written 

in the Convent of Mar Shaina (JLl^l) in the district of Germanicia in 

Mar*ash. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order of the 

Passion of Our Redeemer in the Flesh. This order has apparently not been 

published. 

1 Second Teshrin 31, An. Graecorum 13 12. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., pp. uof. 

3 They were also called " Syrian Canons " to distinguish them from the Greek 
Canons, which were translated from Greek into Syriac at a later date. 



[168J 



1000 A. D. 



Plate CXVII 



fj%$J?* 




■ v §c 




. . . 










**?>*& !«*»» oms> Jamas W Sat* &*& ^ 




V Vi\y ■ ./t^yso^jjp '^-^^Aua^iMQa^a 






Aba* 




:^5S^W/«8fc ^^N^iak^ 



'■'i.*i < S 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 154, folio 122 v. 



Plate CXVffl 



1003-1004 to 1028-1029 A. D. 



w* 



Il4to^iib^lV^.,<^ 




V^u V^> \iDxL oWt-WS* 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 94, folio 28 



PLATE CXVIII 

1 003-1 004 to 1 028-1 029 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 94, fol. 28. " 

Severus of Antioch and Other Jacobite Fathers, An Octoechus. 

Vellum; 15.7 to 15.8 cm. X 11.9 to 12.1 cm.; 179 leaves; one column; 
19 to 26 lines to the page; columns ruled with lead; ink brownish; Serta. 
The scribe's name was John. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from De Sacro Hosan- 
narum, i. e. the Feast of Palms. The work has apparently not been pub- 
lished. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), 
p. 190. 

1 The manuscript was written in the days of Mar John, Patriarch of Antioch, who 
was known as *Abdun (^OjA!>.) , and of Mar Zechariah, Patriarch of Alexandria, and 
of Mar Thomas, Metropolitan of Samosata, and of Mar Thomas, Bishop of Claudia 
(JL>aiu»). Since John was Patriarch of Antioch from An. Graecorum 13 15 to 1344 
(1003-1004 to 1032-1033 A. D.) and Zechariah was Patriarch of Alexandria from 
An. Martyrum 716 to 745 (999-1000 to 1028-1029 A. D.), the codex must have been 
copied between the years 1 003-1 004 and 1 028-1 029 A. D. See J. S. Assemani, 
Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 1719-1728), II, pp. 350 ff. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, oy. clt., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 500 ff. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[169] 



1015 A. D. 



PLATE CXIX 

1015 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 65, fol. 117. 2 

Festal and Other Discourses for the Whole Year by Various Authors. 3 

Vellum; 40.9 to 41.2 cm. X 29.2 to 30.6 cm.; 355 leaves; two columns; 

30 to 34 lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink 

brown and black; Serta. The scribe's name was Saliba. 4 The codex once 

belonged to the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the discourse of Jacob 
of Serug On the Sinful Woman. See P. Bedjan, Homiliae selectae Mar- 
Jacobi Sarugensis (Paris and Leipzig, 1905-1910), II, pp. 413 ff. 

1 Haziran 28, An. Graecorum 1326. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 842 ff. (No. 
DCCCXXV). 

3 These writers are : Basil; John Chrysostom; Cyril of Alexandria; Ephraem Syrus; 
George, Bishop of the Arabs; Gregory Nazianzen; Gregory of Nyssa; Hippolytus; Jacob 
of Edessa; Jacob of Serug; John, Patriarch of Antioch; Pantaleon of Byzantium; 
Proclus of Constantinople; and Severus of Antioch. For the titles of the discourses 
contained in the codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 842 ff. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[170] 






*?*>>*"&> ^K &r> «ia 

"*» <*np* Vila, ^0 

^. J <wxoMm^Xla!. 

*V*> iAL. oil auaw 



Plate CXIX 



***£ *aaL ^ Jftw 
*-<* otsAj .ooo» **,«££* 

-■*$$ «$*&.,&*>» jk, 

Wbwtao.J,^ ,^3^; & 

*^- /jpiJ „Vu, .'0* 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12165, folio 117 



Plate CXX 



1033-1034 A. D. 











i*> 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12145 (foil. 181-189), folio 182v. 



PLATE CXX 

io33- J °34 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 12145 (foil. 181-189), fol. 182V. 2 

An Order of Any One Saint; and a Greek Canon for the Obsequies of 
the Mother of God (Fourth Tone). 

Vellum; 20.6 to 21.3 cm. X 12.9 to 13. 1 cm.; 9 leaves; one column; 20 
to 23 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe was a priest named Jacob. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Order of Any 
One Saint. This order has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1345. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 251 ff. (No. 
CCCXIII). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[171] 



1041 A. D. 



Plate CXXI 

- it- ; ' 



PLATE CXXI 

1 04 1 A.D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 21, fol. 17. 2 

A Lectionary of the Acts and the Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews) 
according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.3 to 24.5 cm. X 18.4 to 18.8 cm.; 151 leaves; two columns; 
20 to 23 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
a blunt point; ink black and brownish; Serta. The scribe's name was John 
bar Joseph, and the manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Pante- 
leemon ( ( a^Qu k JJJL^j.s) on the Black Mountain near Antioch. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Acts 8: 26-33. 

1 First Teshrin 31, An. Graecorum 1353. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 136 ff. 

3 This monastery was also known as the Convent of Elias the Prophet, and the 
Black Mountain was also called the Boars Head. 



[172] 



o^i loot ?i*=i* 




t^S|»« All >*36 • )j^ 

jL ^V ^*c^ ^*a loot 

.^axi** ?Wbab5 vtasJLfcs^ 

J^&*-* ?ocn V^c 0016 

. * .\|J4 • o^tn vao 

y — *>o> « * 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 21, folio 17 



Plate CXXII 



1056 A. D. 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14510, folio 79v. 



PLATE CXXII 

1056 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 145 10, fol. 79V. 2 

Supplicatory Canons for the Ferial Days of the Week; and MaKapicr/jLoi 
for the Days of the Week (arranged according to the Eight Tones). 

Vellum; 23 to 23.2 cm. X 17.2 to 17.7 cm.; 305 leaves; one column; 20 
lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe was a priest named Peter (who was also known as Poly- 
carp) bar Joseph. The manuscript was written in the Convent of Elias the 
Prophet on the Black Mountain near Antioch. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Supplicatory 
Canons for the Ferial Days of the Week (Third Tone). These canons have 
apparently not been published. 

1 Tammuz 29, An. Graecorum 1367. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 378 f. (No. 
CCCCLXXXVI). 

3 This monastery was also known as the Convent of Mar Panteleemon, and the 
Black Mountain was also called the Boar's Head. 



[173] 



PLATE CXXIII 

1 074-1 075 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 147 14, foL 62. 2 

Severus of Antioch, John bar Aphtunaya, 3 etc., Hymns on Various Sub- 
jects; 4 Supplicatory Hymns; and Supplicatory Hymns of the Resurrection. 

Paper; 16.3 to 16.7 cm. X 12.8 to 13. 1 cm.; 138 leaves; one column; 
16 to 25 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead 
in the first part of the codex, and in the latter part columns only ruled with 
lead; ink black; Serta. The scribe's name was Benjamin. He wrote folia 
1 -1 10, and one of his disciples named Theodore finished the work. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order of Chants 
of the Mother of God (JoOJS iA->> lK+i^x>> Jm*>^) arranged according to 
the Eight Tones. This order has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1386. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 346 f. (No. 
CCCCXXX). 

3 Dr. Wright calls him bar Aphtunaya (see op. cit., Part I, p. 346, col. 1; and 
Part III, p. 1297, col. 2) and bar Aphtonya, and he says that Aphtonia was the name 
of John's mother (see A Short History of Syriac Literature, London, 1894, p. 84). 
M. R. Duval gives his name as bar Aphtonia (see ha litterature syriaque, third ed., 
Paris, 1907, p. 359), whereas Professor Baumstark refers to him as Sohn des Aph- 
thonios (see Geschichte der syrischen Literaiur, Bonn, 1922, p. 181). 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in 
the British Museum (London, 1 870-1872), Part I, p. 346. 

5 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[174] 



1074-1075 A. D. 



Plate CXXIII 



• 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14714, folio 62 






Plate CXXIV 



1085 A. D. 



Wilis nVuMo . j»i=> tf»jJ*joo7 Jk» # 

-— Map M*±o** ./Jk^M&sbi 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14734 (foil. 1-176), folio 58v. 



PLATE CXXIV 

1085 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14734 (foil. 1-176), fol. 58V. 2 

Samuel, The History of Bar-Sauma. 

Paper; 19.3 to 19.5 cm. X 13.2 to 13.8 cm.; 176 leaves; one column; 15 
to 20 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; 
ink black; Serta. The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Samuel's History of 
Bar-Sauma, Miracle LII. See F. Nau in the Revue de VOrient Chretien, 
Deuxieme Serie, IX, pp. 113 f., where part of the passage reproduced here 
is printed and translated. 

1 Adar 1, An. Graecorum 1396. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part III, pp. 1 147 f. (No. 
DCCCCLXVII). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[175] 



PLATE CXXV 

1 1 02 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14679, fol. 11 7V. 2 

Daniel of Salah, Commentary on the Psalms, Vol. II (Ps. LI-C). 3 
Paper; 19.8 to 20 cm. X 14.5 cm.; 195 leaves; one column; 21 to 26 
lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a blunt 
point in the first part of the codex, and in the latter part columns and top 
lines ruled with lead; ink black and brownish; Serta. The scribe was a 
priest and stylite named Samuel bar Cyriacus; and the manuscript was 
written in Gazarta, which was also called Nikios, in the neighbourhood of 
the desert of Scete and Cairo ( r ij-*o) and Alexandria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Daniel's commentary 
on Psalm 86: 1-3. The commentary on this psalm has apparently not been 
published. 

1 Tammuz 8, An. Graecorum 141 3. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op- c ^-> P art H> P- 606 (No. 
DCCX). 

3 The first four quires are lost, and the text now begins with the homily on Psalm 
62: 4. On fol. 194 there is a very small portion of the commentary on Psalm 1, which 
was left unfinished by the scribe. 



[176] 



1102 A. D. 



Plate CXXV 




#%*$! Actios &> 



3o^ 



lli&Qjitf 



V M r-|ttl3 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14679, folio 11 7v. 



Plate CXXVI 




" 




u»m 






Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Marshall MS. 671 (foil. 1-44), folio 10 



PLATE CXXVI 

1128-1129 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marshall MS. 671 (foil. 1-44), fol. 10. 



Offices in Commemoration of Mar Jacob JLor 



ia*>. 



Paper; 27 to 27.8 cm. X 18 to 18.3 cm.; 44 leaves; one column; 17 lines 
to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Serta. 4 

Assemani says that an office for Jacob JLamaso was published by the Sacra 
Congregatio de Propaganda Fide in 1556. See S. E. Assemani, op. cit. y 
Pars I, p. 238. The present writer has not been able to consult this work 
in order to determine whether or not it contains the passage which is repro- 
duced in the plate. 

1 An. Graecorum 1440. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in Catalogi Codicum Manu- 
scriptorum Bibliothecae Bodleianae, Pars VI (Oxford, 1864), cols. 544 f. (No. 164). 

3 Jacob was a Persian Christian of ^sx\ K-»_a, and according to a Syriac account 
of his martyrdom he was put to death by being cut in pieces in the second year of 
Bahrain (^jojio), i.e. Bahrain V, who reigned from 420 to 438 A. D. See S. E. 
Assemani, Acta Sanctorum Martyrum Orientalium et Occidentalium (Rome, 1748), 
Pars I, p. 242. According to Dr. Payne Smith, Jacob suffered this fate " sub Yazdagirdo 
rege Persarum." See R. Payne Smith, of. eft., col. 544. Yezdegerd I (399-420 A. D.) 
was the predecessor of Bahrain V, and Yezdegerd II (438-457 A. D.) was Bahrain's 
successor. 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[177] 



1133 A. D. 



Plate CXXVII 



PLATE CXXVII 

1 1 33 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14498, fol. 62. 2 

A Collection of Three Anaphoras with Introductory Prayers, Prooemia, 
and Sedras; 3 Severus of Antioch, The Signing of the Chalice with the Sign 
of the Cross; A Collection of Sedras and Prayers for the Feasts of the Whole 
Year; and A Collection of Sedras and Prayers for Other Occasions. 

Vellum; 14.7 to 15 cm. X 10.8 to 11.2 cm.; 161 leaves; one column; 
1 6 to 20 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe's name was Lazarus bar Saba, and he was a native or 
resident of Beth-Severina in Tur-'Abdin. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Collection of 
Sedras and Prayers for the Feasts of the Whole Year. This collection has 
apparently not been published. 

1 On the third Thursday of Ab, An. Graecorum 1444. The day of the month is 
not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, ov. cit. y Part I, pp. 230 f . (No. 
CCXCV). 

3 For the titles of these anaphoras see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, p. 231. The 
title of the whole work is JU^jlS; j& . m?>. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 








London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14498, folio 62 



[178] 



Plate CXXVIII 



1165 A. D. 



/ 









Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 52, folio 71 



PLATE CXXVIII 

1 165 A.D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 52, fol. 71 < 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Paper; 14.8 cm. X 1 1.5 cm.; 223 leaves; one column; 22 and 23 lines to 
the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The manuscript was 
written in the Convent of Mar Saliba in Edessa. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 6: 56-7: 8. 

1 Ab, An. Graecorum 1476. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, oj?. cit. y p. 19. 
8 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[179] 






PLATE CXXIX 

1 1 69-1 170 A. D. 1 
Cambridge, University Library, Add. MS. 1700, fol. 75.* 

The Four Gospels, Acts, the Seven Catholic Epistles, and the Pauline 
Epistles (including Hebrews) according to the Harclean Version; and 1 and 
2 Clement. 3 

Vellum; 22 to 24.2 cm. X 14.7 to 16.7 cm.; 216 leaves; two columns; 
36 to 42 lines to the column; columns ruled with lead; ink black; Serta. The 
scribe's name was Sahda, and he was a native or resident of Edessa. The 
manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Saliba in Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 23: 13-36. 

1 An. Graecorum 1481. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, A Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1901), 
I, pp. 6 ff. 

3 1 and 2 Clement follow immediately after Jude. 



[180] 



1169-1170 A. D. 



Plate CXXIX 



4 . 4**M£ Aft* **9 oUJx* 

•«&£ ^ifU'tbj Six 9 °°°» 
4 «oa. fl Vvrt (* y»J «*$L 



y£fc»#* ftqjjffi ♦^ofr* Olft"^ 



000, ^ay^ ^JiA-^fcof 



fe^5 )* J» Jfe fc*0 .Ot^w 

;^-^>^££ 

*fc^> Y* Ve$w lib. .V&w* 



■ 



Cambridge, University Library 
Add. MS. 1700, folio 75 



Plate CXXX 



1174 A. D. 






oof JjuU^o * J&>l*JJJf 



















' • , 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 67, folio 170 



PLATE CXXX 

1 1 74 A. D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 67, fol. 170. 2 

Dionysius 3 bar Salibi, Commentary on the Gospels. 

Paper; 26.5 cm. X 15.5 cm.; 357 leaves; two columns; 35 to 40 lines to 
the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black; Serta. The 
scribe's name was Basil bar Sa'id Saba, and the manuscript was written in 
Edessa. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Dionysius's com- 
mentary on Matthew 27: 46. See A. Vaschalde in Corpus Scriptorum 
Christianorum Orientalium, Series Secunda, Tomus XCIX, pp. 134 ff. 

1 Tammuz 20, An. Graecorum 1485. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. cit., pp. 34 f . 

3 He received the name of Jacob at his baptism. 



[181] 



PLATE CXXXI 

1193-1194 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 236, fol. 177. 2 

Lives of the Saints. 

Paper; 25.8 to 26.5 cm. X 16.8 to 17.3 cm.; 365 leaves; one column; 
21 to 28 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black and brownish; 
Serta. The scribe was a priest named Behnam. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the History of Anti- 
gonus and Eupraxia and Their Daughter Eupraxia in the Days of the 
Emperor Theodosius the Great. The work has apparently not been 
published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1505. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. cit., pp. 187 f. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[182] 



11931 194 A. D. 



Plate CXXXI 



















•^/waoJkJja* tt 




# •■>*. 









• 



. 






Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 236, folio 177 



Plate CXXXII 



1210 A. D. 



' <v' f '" ' 



\ 4 , 










jofe.*,^ 



Sdi*% .4W*a J******* fJ&t A*** Htt* 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17232, folio 208 



PLATE CXXXII 

1210 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17232, fol. 208. 2 

A Paradise, or Treasury, containing a Large Collection of Hymns, 
Chants, Anthems, Canons, and Prayers for Various Occasions. 3 

Paper; 20.9 to 21.1 cm. X 16.2 to 16.6 cm.; 497 leaves; one column; 
22 to 30 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with a blunt point; 
ink black; Serta. The scribe was a deacon named Denha (who was also 
called Aia'ruf) bar John Abu Said; and the manuscript was written in the 
city of Sigistan. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order for the Holy 
Prophets and Elias the Prophet. This order has apparently not been 
published. 

1 llul 11, An. Graecorum 1521. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scrifts in the British Museum (London, 1870-1872), Part I, pp. 371 ff. (No. 
CCCCLXIX). 

3 For a list of these hymns, chants, anthems, canons, and prayers see W. Wright, 
of. cit, Part I, pp. 371 ff. 



[183] 



1218 A. D. 



Plate CXXXIII 



PLATE CXXXIII 

1218 A.D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17229 (foil. 1-47), fol. 28v. 2 

A Collection of Eight Anaphoras. 3 

Paper; 25.3 to 25.8 cm. X 16.5 to 16,9 cm.; 47 leaves; one column; 15 
to 18 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black and brown; Serta. 
The scribe's name was Abu 3 1-Fadl. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Anaphora of St. 
James, the Brother of the Lord. For a Latin translation of this anaphora 
see E. Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (Paris, 171 6), II, 
pp. 126 ff. For a translation of folio 28v. see p. 128. 

1 lyar 3, An. Graecorum 1 529. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, pp. 207 f. (No. 
CCLXIII). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, p. 207. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[184] 


















1 ^Vn >V^ow^>« f JU>V 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17229 (foil. 1-47), folio 28v. 



Plate CXXXIV 



1230 A. D. 






flu <^l ><+*> &*4>J*m 

* / I • v ' i 





/^/^usdfcj ©>>3 /*••»> 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14691 (foil. 1-109), folio 97v. 



PLATE CXXXIV 

1230 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14691 (foil. 1-109), fol. 97V. 2 

A Collection of Nine Anaphoras. 3 

Paper; 25.6 to 26.1 cm. X 17.1 to 17.6 cm.; 109 leaves; one column; 
1 4 to 2 1 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Serta. The scribe was a priest named e Adlev (o.\^.) bar Joseph. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Anaphora of 
Ignatius JWqj. For a Latin translation of this anaphora see E. Renaudot, 
Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (Paris, 171 6), II, pp. 215 ft. For a 
translation of folio 97V. see p. 224. 

1 Tammuz 5, An. Graecorum 1541. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. ciU, Part I, pp. 208 f. (No. 
CCLXIV). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, p. 208. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[185] 



PLATE CXXXV 

1234 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 147, 



fol. 



43V. 



Moses bar Kepha, 3 The Book on the Soul; id., An Additional Chapter 
to the Book on the Soul; id., A Festal Homily on the Consecration of the 
Holy Chrism; Rabban Daniel, On the Distinction between the Chrism and 
the Eucharist; Moses bar Kepha, 3 A Festal Homily on the Mysteries of 
Baptism; Lazarus bar Sabhetha, A Commentary on Holy Baptism; Moses 
bar Kepha, 3 A Festal Homily on the Ascension of Our Lord to Heaven; and 
John of Dara, Selections from the Book on the Soul. 

Paper; 16.8 to 17 cm. X 11.7 to 12.5 cm.; 168 leaves; one column; 20 
to 22 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink brown; Serta. The scribe 
was a deacon named Daniel, and he was a native or resident of Dulichium 
(JL ">qN>). The manuscript was written in the northern Convent of Mar 
Bar-sauma, which was near the towns of w*^**> and ©j-^^^ in the district 
of Mardin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the work of Moses 
bar Kepha entitled The Book on the Soul, Chapter XX. The Syriac text has 
apparently not been published. The work has been translated into German 
by Dr. O. Braun, Moses bar Kepha und sein Buck von der Seele (Freiburg 
im Breisgau, 1891). For a translation of fol. 43V. see pp. 72 f. 

1 First Teshrin 8, An. Graecorum 1546. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit. y Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 273 ff. 

3 After he became bishop of the united dioceses of Mosul, JLjq^s K-^>, and 
^0) iwa, he was known as Mar Severus. 



[186] 



1234 A. D. 



Plate CXXXV 




<A*& let 0-oZa ^fe ooi/^o 



<• 



t< *-2^Wk^ w*^ iJ&A "fsg 9 ' 

©Mi*© 




Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 147, folio 43v. 



Plate CXXXVI 



1242 A. D. 







• •#"•■•-.•> 









r*-f 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 21210, folio 139v. 






PLATE CXXXVI 

1242 AD. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 21 210, fol. 139V. 2 

Moses bar Kepha, 3 Thirty-seven Festal Homilies and Other Discourses; 4 
Rabban Daniel, A Discourse on the Distinction between the Holy Chrism 
and the Holy Eucharist; Three Anonymous Discourses; 5 and YeshtY bar 
Abraham bar Elias of Melitene, A Discourse on the Friday of the Crucifixion. 

Paper; 24.8 to 25.2 cm. X 17.7 cm.; 232 leaves; one column; 21 to 35 
lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; Serta. 
The codex is the work of three scribes: Zaina, a priest named Abu 1-Khair, 
and George. The manuscript was written in the Church of Mar Thomas 
the Apostle in Mosul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the discourse of Moses 
bar Kepha On the Mysteries of Baptism. The work has apparently not been 
published. 

1 tyar 8, An. Graecorum 1553. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 876 ff. 
(No. DCCCXLI). 

3 After he became bishop of the united dioceses of Mosul, J - ** t ^ k. ^ and 
^aoi & - «\ he was known as Mar Severus. 

4 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, pp. 877 ff. 

5 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part II, p. 880. 



[187] 



PLATE CXXXVII 

1264 A.D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 56, fol. 91. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 

Paper; 25.2 cm. X 17.2 cm.; 191 leaves; one column; 21 lines to the 
page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Serta. The 
scribe's name was 'Aziz, and he was a native or resident of Bartella near 
Mosul. Matthew and Mark were written in the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria, and Luke and John were copied in the Mountain of 
Egypt. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 15: 4-15. 

1 Tammuz 19, An. Graecorum 1575. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. cit. y pp. 20 f. 



[188] 






1264 A. D. 



Plate CXXXVII 



l 1J 




p^JJo^olfJo^OLMM^ycf 



<* 





• m* 







.* 













•*. A # 












• 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 56, folio 91 



Plate CXXXVIII 



1276 A. D. 









►ft^rtVQ 



V« jt .I'SiV^ i^AfWlNft «^H»|fM(U 







v,o» )JU % rAiSa nS, fro Uo* 



Cambridge, University Library 
Add. MS. 2003, folio 43 



PLATE CXXXVIII 

1276 A.D. 1 
Cambridge, University Library, Add. MS. 2003, fol. 43.* 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, The Business of Businesses. 

Paper; 23.1 to 23.2cm. X 12.2 to 12.5cm.; 101 leaves; 3 one column; 
27 to 31 lines to the page; columns ruled with lead and lines ruled with a 
blunt point; ink brown; Serta. The scribe's name was John bar Bacchus, 
and his family came from Bartella near Mosul. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's work 
entitled The Business of Businesses, Part II, Chapter I. 5 The work has 
apparently not been published. 

1 Iyar 20, An. Graecorum 1587. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, A Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1901), 
I, pp. 493 ff. 

3 Folia 2-17 are later than the rest of the codex. The paper is thicker and the ink 
is black. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 

5 Part II deals with the Aristotelian physics. 



[189] 



PLATE CXXXIX 

1291-1292 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14699, fol. 95. 2 

The Order of the Resurrection of Our Lord arranged in Eight Parts, 
according to the Eight Tones; An Order for Two or More Persons Whose 
Commemoration falls on the Same Day, or for Martyrs in General; and An 
Order of Hymns and Prayers for Abba Bishoi. 

Paper; 27.3 to 27.6 cm. X 20.6 cm.; 136 leaves; one column; 15 to 19 
lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe's name was John, and he wrote the manuscript for the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the seventh part (or 
order) of the Order of the Resurrection of Our Lord. This order has 
apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1603. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part I, pp. 304 ff. (No. 
CCCLXXIV). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[190] 



1291-1292 A. D. 



01 



Plate CXXXIX 



' 



■ .7 ■ > \ 









^L. %• Jfc # _ _ • A m _ W ft A •• ftv a** 






London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14699, folio 95 



Plate CXL 



1308-1309 A. D. 






Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 346, folio 31 



PLATE CXL 

1308-1309 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 346, fol. 3 



1. 



Ptolemy, The Tetrabiblos (Books II [Chapters 10-13], HI, and IV); 
and Severus Sebokt, A Treatise on the Astrolabe; id., Chapters on Eclipses, 3 
the Horns of the Moon, and the Winds; and id., A Treatise on the Constel- 
lations and Various Other Subjects. 4 

Paper; 16.2 to 16.7 cm. X 1 1.8 to 12.5 cm.; 177 leaves; one column; 23 
to 29 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black and brown; Serta. 
The scribe was a priest named Yeshu' bar David, who was also called Akila; 
and he was a native or resident of Hah in Tur-Wbdm. The manuscript 
was written in the Convent of Mar Ananias near Mardin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, 
Book IV, Chapter 7 (ilepi cfriXcov koll exOpS>v). For the Greek text and an 
English translation see Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos in the Loeb Classical Library, 
edited and translated by F. E. Robbins (London and Cambridge, Mass., 
1940), pp. 416 ff. 5 

1 An. Graecorum 1620. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Zotenberg (1874) or in the Notice 
sur les manuscrits syriaques de la Bibliotheque Nationale of J. B. Chabot (Paris, 
1896), which is also published in the journal Asiatique, Neuvieme Serie, VIII, pp. 
234 ft. It was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale after 1896. For a description 
of the manuscript see F. Nau in the Revue de VOrient Chretien, Deuxieme Serie, V 
(XV), pp. 228 ff. 

3 The chapter on the eclipse of the sun may be the work of George, Bishop of the 
Arabs. 

4 For the titles of the chapters of this treatise see F. Nau in of. cit., Deuxieme Serie, 
V (XV), pp. 232 ff. Two letters of George, Bishop of the Arabs, are included as 
Chapters XXVII and XXVIII. Chapter XXIX consists of extracts from Gregory bar 
Hebraeus on certain astronomical matters. 

5 In the edition of the Tetrabiblos which was brought out by J. Camerarius at 
Basel in 1553 the passage is on pp. 193 ff. The complete edition of Ptolemy's works 
which is now being published at Leipzig in the Bibliotheca Serif torum Graecorum et 
Romanorum Teuhneriana is not accessible to me. 



[191] 



PLATE CXLI 

1323 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Huntington MS. 490, fol. 62/ 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, Ethics. 

Paper; 16.4 to 16.8 cm. X 11.7 to 12.4 cm.; 265 leaves; one column; 
20 to 25 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink brown; Serta. The manuscript was written in the Convent of 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's Ethics, 
Discourse I, Chapter 7. See P. Bedjan, Ethicon seu Moralia Gregorii Bar- 
hehraei (Paris, 1898), pp. 91 f. 

1 Ab 18, An. Graecorum 1634. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. cit., cols. 567 f. 
(No. 174). 

s The name of the scribe is not given. 



1323 A. D. 



Plate CXLI 









Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Huntington MS. 490, folio 62 



[192] 



Plate CXLII 



1335 A. D. 



G 









r ^ 



• • 



^ ra^^v -^.v* v^**^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7194, folio 196 



PLATE CXLII 

1335 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7194, fol. 196. 2 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, Ethics. 

Paper; 22.8 to 23 cm. X 14.5 to 15.9 cm.; 266 leaves; one column; 22 
to 24 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; 
ink brown; Serta. There were two scribes: Saliba and Yeshu*, the sons of 
Manaya (JUl*). 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's Ethics, 
Discourse IV, Chapter 6. See P. Bedjan, Ethicon sen Moralia Gregorii 
Barhebraei (Paris, 1898), pp. 379 f. 

1 Haziran 29, An. Graecorum 1646. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, Catalogus Codicum 
Manuscriftorum Orientalium qui in Museo Britannico asservantur (London, 1838), 
Pars I, p. 85 (No. LIII). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[l93] 



PLATE CXLIII 

1347 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14692 (foil. 25-99), fol. 43- 2 

A Collection of Six Anaphoras. 3 

Paper; 27.7 to 28 cm. X 19.6 to 19.8 cm.; 75 leaves; one column; 16 to 
1 8 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The scribe was 
a priest named Isa (Jm. s). 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Anaphora of 
Thomas of Harqel. For a Latin translation of this anaphora see E. Renaudot, 
Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (Paris, 1716), II, pp. 383 ff. For a 
translation of folio 43 see pp. 387 f. 

1 Iyar 11, An. Graecorum 1658. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 211 f. (No. 
CCLXXIII). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, p. 211. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[194] 



1347 A. D. 



Plate CXLIII 



• •• •• 






U 
Joflvif 










London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14692 (foil. 25-99), folio 43 



Plate CXLIV 



1364 A. D. 



ft .|^| (^uAxjAio 
«* f No tt*a Laa *£** 




<**^«A ./ft£l jt&* ^> 



» J faiirifr >^i» u^Js. 
*E\»t*JV\»w«»o.fy> tea* 



London, British Museum 
Orient. MS. 1017, folio 39v. 



PLATE CXLIV 

1364 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Orient. MS. 1017, fol. 39V. 2 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, The Book of Rays; id., The Book of the Speech 
of Wisdom; id., The Book of the Pupils of the Eyes; and id., The Book of 
Hierotheus. 3 

Paper; 20.9 to 21.1 cm. X 15 to 16 cm.; 208 leaves; mostly two columns; 
25 to 36 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink brown and black; Serta. The scribe's name was Bar-sauma bar 
David; 4 and he was connected with the Convent of Mar Samuel, Mar 
Simeon, and Mar Gabriel, which was called the Convent of Qartamin. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's work en- 
titled The Book of Rays, Discourse III, On the Incarnation of God the 
Word, Chapter 3. The work has apparently not been published. 

1 Ab 10, An. Graecorum 1675. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part II, pp. 890 ff. 
(No. DCCCL). 

3 Among these works the following are interspersed : (a) a list of the titles of 
Gregory's works; (b) an extract from Mar Isaac of Nineveh; (c) a metrical enigma; 
(d) a chronicle of events from the creation of the world to the end of the thirteenth 
century; (e) a list of the Jewish high priests from Aaron to Alexander, the son of 
John Hyrcanus; (f ) two metrical discourses of John bar Andrew, Bishop of Tur-*Abdin. 

4 The letters of the name are indicated cryptically by means of ordinal numerals, 
which give the number of each letter in the Syriac alphabet. 

5 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[195] 



PLATE CXLV 

I373-I374 A. D. 1 

Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, 

Cod. Syr. 206 (Petermann I, Syr. 23), fol. 112. 2 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, The Book of Directions (or Nomocanon). 

Paper; 24.5 cm. X 17 cm.; 235 leaves; one column; 25 lines to the page; 
columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink black; Serta. The 
scribe was a priest named Daniel; and the manuscript was written in the 
Convent of St. Mary Deipara, or Natpha, east of Mardin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's Book of 
Directions (or Nomocanon), Chapter XIII. This work has been published 
by P. Bedjan (Paris, 1898), but the present writer has not been able to 
consult it. For a Latin translation of the Nomocanon by J. A. Assemani 
see A. Mai, Scriftorum Veterum Nova Collectio (Rome, 1 825-1 838), X, 
2, pp. 3 ff . For a translation of folio 112 see pp. 119 (col. 2) and 120 
(col. 1). 

1 An. Graecorum 1685. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see E. Sachau, op. cit. y II, pp. 682 ff. 



[196] 



1373-1374 A. D. 



Plate CXLV 



• msg i* *ii*?ih* ***** *» u&±ih 






.]***** 



{aftM&aaj 





•3. 
••1 



41 




*l$Z*f uln*tm*m U £&*»*■ Uf fash fj&fooo 



Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek 
Cod. Syr. 206 (Petermann I, Syr. 23) folio 112 






Plate CXLVI 






1397 A. D. 






















d£ 









PLATE CXLVI 

1397 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 47, fol. 33. 2 

Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles (including 
Hebrews) according to the Peshltta Version. 

Paper; 21.3 cm. X 16 cm.; 209 leaves; one column; 18 to 20 lines to 
the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The manuscript was 
written in the Convent of Mar Moses in the mountain of Tennana 
(Mil). 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Acts 10: 3-1 1. 

1 Kanun (i. e. First Kanun) 9, An. Graecorum 1709. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. tit., p. 15. 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 47, folio 33 



[197] 



1425 A. D. 



Plate CXLVII 



PLATE CXLVII 

1425 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marshall MS. 664, fol. 45. 2 

Offices for the Six Summer Months according to the Jacobite Use. 

Paper; 28.1 to 28.3 cm. X 18 to 18.5 cm.; 289 leaves; one column; 20 
and 21 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Serta. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order for the 
Fifth Sunday of the Resurrection, i. e. the Fourth Sunday after Easter. This 
order has apparently not been published. 

1 Teshrin (i.e. First Teshrin) 20, An. Graecorum 1737. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. ciu, cols. 203 ff. (No. 

56). 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[198] 




















Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Marshall MS. 664, folio 45 



Plate CXLVm 



1457 A. D. 










*«^o j^** mW/ «•**», liaf 
^ImSS^ ty) •/»*•*** ^ 












PLATE CXLVIII 

1457 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 68, fol. 138. 2 

Dionysius 3 bar Salibi, Commentary on the Gospels. 

Paper; 27.5 to 28.2 cm. X 18.2 cm.; 266 leaves; two columns; 33 to 43 
lines to the column; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. There were two 
scribes, whose names were John and Joseph. 4 The manuscript was written 
near the village of Kaphra in Tur-'Abdin. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Dionysius's com- 
mentary on Matthew 27: 46, 52, and 53. See A. Vaschalde in Corpus 
Serif torum Christianorum Orientalium, Series Secunda, Tomus XCIX, pp. 
136 and 141 ff. (with omissions). 

1 Second Kanun 13, An. Graecorum 1768. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. cit., pp. 35 f. 

3 He received the name of Jacob at his baptism. 

4 M. Zotenberg says : " Ce ms. a ete execute par deux copistes contemporains, dont 
les ecritures alternent dans la copie." See H. Zotenberg, of. cit., p. 36. 



[l99] 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 68, folio 138 



1468 A. D. 



Plate CXLIX 



PLATE CXLIX 

1468 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 33, fol. 19V. 2 

A Jacobite Missal. 

Paper; 21.8 to 22.5 cm. X 15.7 to 16.3 cm.; 82 leaves; one column; 15 
to 19 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The manu- 
script was written in the Church of St. Mary Deipara in Horns. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Anaphora of 
Dioscorus, Bishop of Jeziret Qardu. For a Latin translation of this anaphora 
see E. Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (Paris, 171 6), II, 
pp. 492 ff. For a translation of folio 19V. see pp. 503 f. 

1 Ab 22, An. Graecorum 1779. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus 
II, pp. 236 f . 

3 The name of the scribe has been erased. 





'4& VSifLft, ^3* 






*♦' 




. ±4 dot t « «o»a^q»/A»«J»A6 M I 



[200] 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 33, folio 19v. 






Plate CL 



1478 A. D. 














1 > ^ft^* > ^o J+ h b i « n a* »< 



t*/a* .**■ .ft**. 

JkJnN>!.e<W.9 



l| 9 «*uAs. *./•/*• 







iL«9 «ci JL//. jLiai^. 
x frr/irif' -^^ 

Ol^.qJLV>*V9 JMȣ 

^>;o^.ii^^»-9 

b*ao*\juU*±*9 












PLATE CL 

1478 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 21580, fol. 174. 2 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, The Metrical Grammar; id., The Storehouse of 
Secrets; Extracts from the Works of Certain Fathers on Several Theological 
Subjects; 3 and A List shewing under What Kings Each of the Holy 
Prophets prophesied. 

Paper; 31.5 to 32 cm. X 21.6 to 21.9 cm.; 199 leaves; two and three 
columns; 30 to 47 lines to the column; apparently no ruling; ink black; 
Serta. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's work 
entitled The Storehouse of Secrets, being the commentary on John 3: 10- 
4: 35. See R. Schwartz, Gregorii har Ehhraya in Evangelium lohannis 
Commentarius (Gottingen, 1878), pp. 7 ff. 

1 Haziran 18, An. Graecorum 1789. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part II, pp. 624 ff. (No. 
DCCXXIII). 

3 The following writers are quoted : Cyril of Alexandria, Dionysius bar Salibi, 
Ephraem Syrus, Evagrius, Gregory of Nyssa, Jacob of Serug, and Michael the 
Patriarch. 

4 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[201] 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 21580, folio 174 



PLATE CLI 

1480-1481 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 18, fol. 27V. 3 

The Gospel of St. John according to the Peshitta Version; 3 and Lections 
from the Four Gospels according to the Harclean Version. 4 

Paper; 15.7 cm. X 10.6 cm.; 184 leaves; one column; 15 lines to the 
page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The manuscript was written 
in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 5 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 5 : 44-47. 

1 An. Graecorum 1792. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus 

ii, pp. 65 & 

3 The Gospel is divided into forty-six lections according to the use of the Jacobites. 
According to the Assemanis the Harclean version is followed in the Gospel (p. 65); 
but this statement is erroneous, as the passage reproduced in the plate shews. 

4 The Assemanis are wrong in saying that the lections are " ex aliis tribus Evange- 
listis, Matthaeo, Marco, & Luca . . . desumptae " (p. 67). The lessons are taken 
from all four Gospels. 

5 The scribe was a monk and priest, but his name is not given. 



[202] 



1480-1481 A. D. 



Plate CLI 












•:« 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 18, folio 2 7 v. 



Plate CLII 



1483-1484 A. D. 




&st 















W 






< ♦♦ 1. ♦♦a C ' 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17231, folio 160 



?-*• 



PLATE CLII 

1483-1484 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17231, fol. 160. 2 

Services for Various Feasts, Saints' Days, etc. 3 

Paper; 31.8 to 32.3 cm. X 21.4 to 22 cm.; 222 leaves; two columns; 24 
and 25 lines to the column; lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Serta. 
There were two scribes: the first, whose name was Jacob, wrote folia 1-168; 
and the second, whose name is not given, copied folia 169-222. The manu- 
script was written in the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order for Mar Aha 
the Ascetic, i. e. a commemoration service for him. This order has appar- 
ently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1795. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 299 ff. (No. 
CCCLXIV). 

3 For the titles of these see W. Wright, of. cit. y Part I, pp. 299 ff. 



[203] 



PLATE CLII1 

1 503-1 504 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marshall MS. 437, fol. 157V. 2 

Offices for the Six Summer Months from Easter to the Eighth Sunday 
before Christmas according to the Jacobite Use; and A Book of Offices 
(a fragment). 

Paper; 29.1 to 29.8 cm. X 18.7 to 19.5 cm.; 244 leaves; two columns; 
25 and 26 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; 
ink black; Serta. The scribe's name was Mar Ignatius, who was also called 
Noah. The manuscript was written in Beroea, i. e. Aleppo. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Order for the 
Martyr Cyriacus and His Mother Julitta. This order has apparently not 
been published. 



55)- 



An. Graecorum 1815. The month and the day of the month are not given. 
: For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in o-p. cit., cols. 196 ff. (No. 



[204] 



1503-1504 A. D. 












*• 





M§^*W 



Plate CLIII 
• « 



mm 




JL-Jo *p=2^ «£*** 




:;pfg 





m 




Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Marshall MS. 437, folio 157v. 



Plate CLIV 



1521 A. D. 





1 1* JBtA. hart tr^^cn fit k&oa^Vtete 

\&> .fa ^ «f* o**J^ J&J^to 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 44, folio 124 



PLATE CLIV 

1 521 A.D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 44, fol. 124. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 27.5 cm. X 20.8 to 21 cm.; 189 leaves; two columns; 3 21 lines 
to the column; apparently no ruling; ink black; Serta. The scribe's name 
was Elias bar Abraham; and he was connected with the Convent of St. 
Mary, which was called Qenubin, on Mount Lebanon. The manuscript 
was written in Rome. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 19: 3-15. 

1 Iyar, 1521 A. D. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, of. cit., p. 15. 

3 The Latin Vulgate text is in the left-hand column of the first three pages of 
Matthew, the first two of Mark, the first five of Luke, and the first three of John. 



[205] 



PLATE CLV 

1535 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 29, fol. 97.* 

A Collection of Twenty-two Anaphoras according to the Maronite Use; 3 
and the Order of the Mass according to the Maronite Use. 

Paper; 26.5 to 27 cm. X 18.4 to 18.7 cm.; 136 leaves; two columns; 23 
and 24 lines to the column; columns ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Serta. The scribe was a priest named Yamin bar )<AJUa, and he was a native 
or resident of the village of Heqal in Syria. The manuscript was written 
in the village of ( .\-m^ in Cyprus. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Anaphora of Mar 
John, Patriarch of the Maronites, who was called Mar Maron. This ana- 
phora has been published in editions of the Maronite missal, e. g. in that 
which appeared at Beirut in 1908. The present writer, however, has not 
been able to consult any edition of the Maronite missal. 

1 Shebat 19, An. Graecorum 1846. The manuscript is also dated 1536 A. D., but 
this is probably erroneous. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. tit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 225 ff. 

3 For the titles of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. tit., Pars I, Tomus II, 
pp. 225 ff. 



[206] 



1535 A. D. 



Plate CLV 










Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 29, folio 97 



Plate CLVI 



1555 A. D. 



» »» £■— via© Jauu . v»>ola A^al 




<N»0»f 







Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Pococke MS. 86, folio 64 



PLATE CLVI 

1555 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Pococke MS. 86, fol. 64^ 

Jacobite Offices. 3 

Paper; 21.2 to 21.8cm. X 15.8 to 16. 1 cm.; 136 leaves; 4 one column; 
1 7 and 1 8 lines to the page; 5 columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; 
ink black and brownish; 6 Serta. The scribe was a bishop named Athanasius, 7 
and the manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Elias " in the land 
of the Two Cities/' 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Book of the 
Candlestick (^^j-aM ^!Ka). This office has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1866. The month and the day of the month are not given. In 
another colophon (fol. 97) the date is recorded as First Kanun, An. Graecorum 1867. 
The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. cit.j cols. 253 ff. 
(No. 70). The rubrics, Gospels, Epistles, and notes throughout the codex are in 
Gershuni. 

3 For a list of these see R. Payne Smith in op. cit. y cols. 253 ff. 

4 There were originally 146 leaves, but ten have been lost at the beginning of 
the codex. 

5 After fol. 104 some pages contain as many as 23 lines. 

6 Brownish ink appears after fol. 104. 

7 He wrote folia 1-104. After this point there is much writing by another hand. 

8 According to Dr. Payne Smith the region about Mosul is meant. See R. Payne 
Smith in op. cit., col. 256. 



[207] 



1563 A. D. 



Plate CLVII 



PLATE CLVII 

1563 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 67, fol. 1 58V. 2 

A Jacobite Ferial Breviary (Jj^ k-*-a); A Liber Diaconalis; 3 and 
Ephraem Syrus, Seblatha of the Madrashe. 

Paper; 27.2 to 27.6 cm. X 17.8 to 18.4 cm.; 170 leaves; two columns; 
21 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Serta. The scribe's name was Sabarta (il;^m). 4 The manuscript was 
written in the Church of St. Mary, but the name of the place where the 
church was is not given. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Seblatha of the 
Madrashe of Ephraem, Nos. XXIX a$d XXX. These seblatha have ap- 
parently not been published. 

1 Second Teshrin 26, An. Graecorum 1875. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit. y Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 371 ff. (Page 371 is wrongly numbered 374). 

3 For the Syriac title of this short work see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit. y 
Pars I, Tomus II, p. 382. 

4 The manuscript is the work of three scribes. Folia 1-72V. (col. 1, line 17) were 
written by one hand and folia 72V. (col. 1, line i8)-i2ov. by another. Folia 122V.-169 
were copied by Sabarta, who wrote the colophon. 



[208] 



L3010 • o«^!i Jto 9 




h 9 JX>\fef 



+*' 





|U»^^» 










< : \ 



oof of^o oy> » 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 67, folio 158v. 



Plate CLVm 



1575-1576 A. D. 



*©* 



* # 

.gpCvOitt} ll&p 0400* j&=> &)* 






Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 121, folio 22 



PLATE CLVIII 

1 575-1 576 A.D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 121, fol. 22. 2 

Mark the Monk, Eight Discourses; 3 Macarius of Egypt, An Exhortation 
to Those Who renounce the World; id., Two Discourses; 4 id., Eight 
Letters; 5 and Macarius of Alexandria, An Exhortation on the Life of Chris- 
tians; id., A Discourse addressed to Those Who renounce the World; and 
id., Eight Letters. 6 

Paper; 21.6 to 21.9 cm. X 15.5 to 15.8 cm.; 119 leaves; two columns; 
26 lines to the column; columns ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Serta. 
The scribe's name was John, and the manuscript was written in the Convent 
of Mar Behnam and Sara His Sister and the Forty Martyrs His Fellows. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a discourse of Mark 
the Monk entitled ~£vfi/3ov\ia vobs 77-pos rf/v iavrov \\fvxqv. For the Greek 
text see Migne, Patr. Gr., LXV, col. 1105. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 887. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 126 ff. 

3 For the titles of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
pp. 126 ff. 

4 For the titles of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
pp. 128 f. 

5 For the addressees of two of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 129 f. 

6 On these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, of. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, pp. 130 f. 



[209] 



1593-1594 A. D. 



Plate CLIX 



PLATE CLIX 

1 593-i 594 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marshall MS. 528, fol 91. 2 

Jacob bar Shakko, 3 Dialogues on Grammar, Rhetoric, and Poetry. 

Paper; 15.5 to 15.8 cm. X 10.2 to 11 cm.; 205 leaves; one column; 19 
and 20 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Serta. The scribe's name was Sahda bar John of Jerusalem, and he 
was a native or resident of the city of Gargar (k^k^). 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Jacob's Dialogue on 
Rhetoric. This dialogue has apparently not been published. 

1 An. Graecorum 1905. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. cit., cols. 642 ff. 
(No. 199). 

8 He was also called e Isa bar Mark, and after he became bishop of the Convent 
of Mar Matthew he was known as Severus. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



$ 


















Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Marshall MS. 528, folio 91 



[210] 



Plate CLX 



599-600 A. D. 






^ 



f*.n «**=». ^j** 



ar <m\m«C *i£-fGfr6s 



.*&!>£* 



A«*> ^«n* ^» m ^<^U .toxica «<m*i ^f 













London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14460, folio 55 



PLATE CLX 

599-600 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14460, fol. 55.* 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 18.8 to 19 cm. X 12.3 to 12.6 cm.; 104 leaves; one column; 
30 to 37 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink brown; Nestorian. The manuscript was written in [yjaiAnAAt 
in the district of Beth-Nuhadra. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 7: 19-34. 

1 An. Graecorum 911. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated in the tenth year of Chosroes, i. e. Chosroes II, who reigned 
from 590 to 628 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 52 f. (No. 
LXXVI). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[211] 



PLATE CLXI 

614-615 A. D.' 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. M47>, W. 70-' 

The Four Gospels aeeording re ' *e J^Ver.ion ^ 

8iV T For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. dt, Part I, pp. 53* (No. 

LXXVII). 

3 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[212] 



614-615 A. D. 



Plate CLXI 






"AMR! WX 



.«n2^pii» •&&»** iQjpalaa .^uAaen 




4 .» 




Jfcao .*&&«& 101^' 







■; J^ 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14471, folio 70 



Plate CLXII 



719-720 A. D. 



W^m» y%^> .r^ *^° 
»>o£ssir©# 

•JMg^&ag *&***& Jxt ■.' 
^T, **& A*<T Jkw? 

o-x^i JWiV »jflWi ia 

&i^ ^s otWbs too 
travel oiajo *aoVv ^aajbo 
rost^s ^-A*** v&utjaao 



oiu t0 .^aua y^^a * 

oA uaSLo «W> /V^"* 
*ook\ iAap\.top ^^ 

<A» oAtfb ^ioioi .altfb 
V&p » *aa ok ^£x>» /»* 
•Ooabso <<&o» V*f*» J^ 
•^oiot^» ^30^^ V^'^ Wa 

'jjtsSb &a^ *aay* ^H>o 
*atja° .«naa^ •£>$* ♦»* 

•.1M ^\/^«gs.»*»oaia<4 
yjl<&&»? Jot ^&oj<*»** 



■• ■ ■■ ■ 



...-•■ 



' ! 



a^.to .^asua J&& 

London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq. 
Cod. Syr. 1, folio lOOv. 



PLATE CLXII 

719-720 A. D. 1 
London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq., Cod. Syr. 1, fol. ioov. 2 

A Book of Nestorian Orders (*&c £\ ) m 

Vellum; 42.2 to 43.8 cm. X 30.5 to 32.3 cm.; 164 leaves; two columns; 
30 and 31 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink 
brown; Nestorian. The scribe's name was Stephen. 3 

Some of these orders may be published in the Breviarium Chaldaicum 
(Paris, 1 886-1 887). This breviary is not accessible to the present writer. 

1 An. Graecorum 1031. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[213] 



767-768 A. D. 



Plate CLXIII 



PLATE CLXIII 

767-768 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7157, fol. 105. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 21.4 cm. X 15.2 to 15.4 cm.; 197 leaves; two columns; 35 to 39 
lines to the column; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown; 
Nestorian. The scribe's name was Sabar; 3 and the manuscript was written 
in the Convent of Rabban Mar Sabar-Yeshu c , i. e. Beth-Quqa, near the 
river Zaba Rabba (rdrn rdrsr^\) in the district of Adiabene. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Acts 5: 36-6: 9. 

1 An. Graecorum 1079. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, of. cit. y Pars I, pp. 
15 ff. (No. XIII); and W. Wright, of. cit. y Part III, p. 1203. 

3 This should probably be Sabar-YeshiV (s^ox* isto) . See J. S. Assemani, 
Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 1719-1728), III, p. 500. 



[214] 



'Ws —*«%* • «• <v^ : , i»vyt 

•jv ... }nA^i«nOr» » <*rrxA.V 

• ^ift^V/UHim fwVvm 

«^m ri^aa .V«cr» riii-sV 

«*<"*«*? <v»ain« .*C*»v>ri 



**$&*£« ^)Mit^ •*<&&, 

r»*$va •*«*», ^^ ;a.^» 
- • <\& «%n**<\ ... <v: ^ 

. # tvtr»^ i«*»f%« ^>rv^f ^^» 

* Ar n <^<^«n rt<\»»^ •♦»\*i 
^VisisJiV Yi-i<*i <\««n '"^W 1 

^ — ««U^\vn3 .^•Vr> ^ 

* AtnWn 5 !^ «<vrn 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7157, folio 105 






Plate CLXIV 



i 



861-862 A. D. 








sa^?\n m 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14492, folio 88 



PLATE CLXIV 

861-862 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14492, fol. 88. 2 

A Nestorian Lectionary of the Old and the New Testament according 
to the Peshitta Version (Part I). 8 

Vellum; 22 to 22.3 cm. X 17 to 17.7 cm.; 104 leaves; one column; 16 
to 20 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink brown 
and black; Nestorian. The scribe was a priest named Jacob bar John, and 
he was a native or resident of Balad in " the land of the East," i. e. northern 
Mesopotamia. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Deuteronomy 14: 8-22. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 173. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 178 f. (No. 
CCXLIII). 

3 Thirty-nine of the forty lessons are taken from the Old Testament. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[215] 



PLATE CLXV 

894 A. D. 1 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 342, fol. 101. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 24.1 to 25cm. X 16 to 17.2cm.; 254 leaves; 3 one column; 
30 to 35 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink brown and black; 
Nestorian. The scribe's name was Saliba Zake, and the manuscript was 
written in the Convent of Rabban Joseph opposite Balad. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 5: 17-30. 

1 An. Graecorum 1205. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 281, which began on March 13, 894 A. D., and 
ended on March 1, 895 A. D. Therefore the codex was finished between March 13 
and September 30, 894 A. D. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Zotenberg (1874) or in the 
Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques de la Bibliotheque Nationale of J. B. Chabot 
(Paris, 1896), which is also published in the Journal Asiatique, Neuvieme Serie, 
VIII, pp. 234 ff. It was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale after 1896. 

3 Folia 1 -10, 59-66, and 252-254 are of paper and the work of a later hand. 



[216] 



894 A. D. 



Plate CLXV 

















*^*<*<*8i nA*£i* ems f*Vc2^ *4i^o»t-6^* Wfc 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 342, folio 101 



Plate CLXVI 



899 A. D. 



i 






















# 










London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 12138, folio 201 









PLATE CLXVI 

8 99 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 121 38, fol. 20 1. 2 

The Book of the Collections of the Vowel Points and Readings in the 
Text of Scripture; 3 A Selection of Passages from the Scriptures to illustrate 
the Use of the Various Signs of Punctuation and Accentuation; On Various 
Letters of the Alphabet and Their Combinations; A Brief Explanation of 
Certain Critical Marks attached to Words in the Biblical Text; and The 
Traditions of the Masters of the Schools. 

Vellum; 22.4 to 23.4 cm. X 15.1 to 16.3 cm.; 312 leaves; one column; 
24 to 40 lines to the page; columns and top lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Nestorian. The scribe was a deacon named Babai, and the 
manuscript was written in Harran. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the first of the above- 
mentioned works, being part of the section on Jeremiah and Lamentations, 
Jeremiah 6: 30-7: 1 is quoted, the Peshitta version being used. The work 
has apparently not been published. 

1 Nisan, An. Graecorum 1210. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, pp. 101 ff. (No. 
CLXI). 

3 This is " a sort of Syriac Masora, exhibiting all the more difficult words and 
sentences of the Biblical text, with the appropriate vowels and signs of punctuation, 
and accompanied by marginal notes, both critical and explanatory." See W. Wright, 
of. cit., Part I, p. 101. It is an East-Syrian Masorah. 



[217] 



PLATE CLXVII 

917-918 A. D. 1 
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Library, Cod. Z 107.31, fol. 1 18. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 23.2 to 24.4 cm. X 15.8 to 17.4 cm.; 208 leaves; 3 one column; 
31 to 35 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with 
lead; ink brown; Nestorian. The manuscript was written in the Convent 
of Mar Elias on the Tigris. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Acts 14: 25-1 5: 13. 

1 An. Graecorum 1229. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 305, which began on June 24, 917 A. D., and 
ended on June 13, 918 A. D. Therefore the codex was finished between October 1, 
917, and June 13, 918 A. D. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 There are also three partial leaves of paper. 

4 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[218] 



917-918 A. D. 



Plate CLXVII 



\ . 




^^^^^fe 



mm$&n 






ft ^wntsn- 




■^M^^mrCl »©W<^,e>Aiarj r^s^^^ar^ 

New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Library 
Cod. Z 107.31, folio 118 



Plate CLXVIII 



1198 A. D. 



*_£&**< ^^ r&A±+ i^iii3b .^turs: f^sun 

• fj*^ 3 fc* r£\ki <*^v< »c*42nr£ «ru*ac\y_. miss 
•.talari T<ito f^nAr^rr^n^Wuii-iivSn^ 



' ' 



^ATJCV ^flP3l!H *3tl<t* ^Jif^i 





Newton Center, Massachusetts, Andover Newton Theological School 
MS. ZE 607-1198, folio 81 



PLATE CLXVIII 

1198 A.D. 1 

Newton Center, Massachusetts, Andover Newton Theological School, 

MS. ZE 607-1 198, fol. 81. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 25.8 to 26.6 cm. X 17.8 to 19.8 cm.; 269 leaves; one column; 
28 to 3 1 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black and 
brown; Nestorian. The scribe was a priest and monk, but his name is not 
given. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 12: 25-38. 

1 An. Graecorum 1510, the fourth Sunday in Advent. In the year 1 198 the fourth 
Sunday in Advent fell on December 20. The manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 
595, which began on November 3, 1 198 A. D., and ended on October 22, 1 199 A. D. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[219] 



1206-1207 A. D. 



Plate CLXIX 



PLATE CLXIX 

1 206-1 207 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Egerton MS. 681, fol. 93.* 

A Gospel Lectionary for the Sundays and Festivals of the Whole Year 
according to the Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 27.6 to 31.8 cm. X 19.6 to 23.3 cm.; 186 leaves; two columns; 
17 to 19 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black 
and brown; Nestorian. The scribe's name was Daniel. 3 

The passages reproduced in the plate are John 18: 36 and 37, and 
Matthew 27: 12-14. 

1 An. Graecorum 1518. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 603. The Mohammedan year 603 began on 
August 8, 1206 A. D., and ended on July 27, 1207 A. D. Therefore the codex was 
finished between October 1 , 1 206, and July 27, 1 207 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 190 ff. (No. 
CCXLVIII). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[220] 




^n Jba^nnx. rsCjkcn ^3 ham 





Sum* »senx.rC*£ pgkty&ti&teaiit 










London, British Museum 
Egerton MS. 681, folio 93 






Plate CLXX 



1217-1218 A. D. 



07 



■3*e 



$ 



•C** 



4& 



ft • 



• :• 



\ 



| *£*! KWl fcJ^£ *Xlt<r jOtea^iT ^b n -Ac** 

j I •<v^?»i^ i^'ia ^w*»bit j*ia «4oW 
f^&%' -ft* ylgM » V***^ #< K»«» ^faK&i ^crj^il^n 



':&%■. 



•4:'..4H 



.♦.*«■• 




& 






, ^dii^iacwaJh^, «& 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 32, folio 107 



PLATE CLXX 

1217-1218 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 32, fol. 107. 2 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 27.7 cm. X 17 to 17.5 cm.; 261 leaves; one column; 27 to 32 
lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with brown ink; ink black; Nes- 
torian. The scribe's name was Faraj (^jte), and he was a native or resi- 
dent of ^n^iaflo. The manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar 
Gabruna. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 7: 36-52. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 529. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated t^iixx r<&2^\. If Zotenberg is right in supplying 7U 
after t^2*i&x, the date will be An. Hegirae 614. The year 614 began on April 10, 
1 21 7 A. D., and ended on March 29, 121 8 A. D. Then the codex will have been 
finished between October 1, 121 7, and March 29, 121 8 A. D. On the other hand if 
co* is supplied after t^2ziA\x, the date will be An. Hegirae 615. The year 615 
began on March 30, 1218 A. D., and ended on March 18, 1219 A. D. In that case 
the manuscript will have been finished between March 30 and September 30, 121 8 
A. D. However, the Mohammedan date is so uncertain that it cannot be used in 
determining the date of the codex. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit. 7 p. 13. 



[221] 



PLATE CLXXI 

1218 A.D. 1 
London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq., Cod. Syr. 4, fol. 53.* 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 39 to 39.7 cm. X 29.5 to 31.2 cm.; 146 leaves; two columns; 
18 and 19 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black; 
Nestorian. The manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Jacob of 
Beth-*Abe. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is John 5: 41-47. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 529. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 615, which began on March 30, 1218 A. D., 
and ended on March 18, 1219 A. D. Therefore the codex was finished between March 
30 and September 30, 1218 A. D. 

2 This codex has not been described more fully. 
8 The name of the scribe is not given. 



[222] 



1218 A. D. 



Plate CLXXI 



























^^J^LiUidvdtdtlf 




London, Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq. 
Cod. Syr. 4, folio 53 



Plate CLXXn 



1222-1223 A. D. 



£i\fcit<l .•g&a^gJ^ ^aaSA-i ^creoS. 
WV&4rt<}i< *T<il 3*i< rd* 



•* 



t<-ii\!li> y£*»*» rfari 00b< t<\\* 
>^eu» c\co<\ •rsja'Ck r&dt.ii* y<*£ns+ 






^flSfci-rSkSb .*£*!& ^AbeM *£***& 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17922, folio 104 



PLATE CLXXII 

1 222-1 223 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17922, fol. 104. 2 

The Four Gospels according to the Peshltta Version. 

Vellum; 19.8 to 20 cm. X 13.3 to 13.6 cm.; 196 leaves; one column; 
22 to 27 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with lead; ink black and 
brown; Nestorian. The scribe's name was Moses. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 5: 34-6: 2. 

1 An. Graecorum 1534. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Hegirae 619, which began on February 15, 1222 A. D., 
and ended on February 3, 1223 A. D. Therefore the codex was finished between 
October 1, 1222, and February 3, 1223 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, p. 60 (No. 
LXXXIV). 

3 The name of the convent in which the manuscript was written has been erased. 



[223] 



PLATE CLXXIII 

1 259-1 260 A. D. 1 
Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Syr. 88 (Petermann I, 9), fol. 34.* 

Works on Philosophy, Grammar, and Theology; and Prayers for the 
Dead. 3 

Paper; 26.5 cm. X 17.5 cm.; 238 leaves; one column; 4 27 to 31 lines to 
the page; 5 columns and top and bottom lines ruled with lead; ink blackish; 
Nestorian. 6 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Porphyry's 'Eicraycoyrj. 7 
For the Greek text see A. Busse, Porphyrii Isagoge et in Aristotelis Categorias 
Commentarium in Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca (Berlin, 1 882-1909), 
IV, Pars I, pp. 18 f. 

1 An. Graecorum 1571. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see E. Sachau, of. cit., I, pp. 321 ff. 

3 For the titles of these works see E. Sachau, of. cit., I, pp. 322 ff. Some of them 
are in Arabic. 

4 Folia 8-36 have two columns. 

5 Professor Sachau says: "Die Zahl der Zeilen sehr verschieden." See E. Sachau, 
of. cit., I, p. 335. 

6 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 

7 The Wuo-ayioyr) of Porphyry was probably translated into Syriac by Sergius of 
Ras-'ain, who died in 536 A. D. On Sergius (Sargis) see A. Baumstark, Geschichte 
der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), pp. 167 ff. 



[224] 



1259-1260 A. D. 




57P 1 






*i 



■•.,- - SF 



*&4k OTfe 



■>h 



Plate CLXXIII 



k 



JSLJAJU o&J*& » So>a &t 



/ 



)&*&M te : : ■•**» 



• # \ • mm * -^*«p ^ 



'r 







*i 











• w 




Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek 
Cod. Syr. 88 (Petermann 1, 9), folio 34 



Plate CLXXIV 



1288-1289 A. D. 



-■> 



*■' 




ailoSrvi i^>o(U 











«£to ^riSM V&p 





. ;v>* * . ,.j '.. *; i. 



- s* a^^;; 



j^lcm*^ 




London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 71 73, folio 119 



PLATE CLXXIV 

1288-1289A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7173, fol. 119. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Vellum; 31.6 to 33.8 cm. X 23.2 to 24.7 cm.; 131 leaves; two columns; 
21 and 22 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; 
ink black and brownish; Nestorian. The manuscript seems to have been 
written in a place called v\aWr^, 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 5: 7-16. 

1 The date is given as r^cun r^^O^JLi73^ K^r^^adtx. duxra , by which the yea r 
1600 of the Seleucid era must be meant. See W. Wright, of. cit, y Part III, p. 1204. 
The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, of. cit., Pars I, pp. 
48 ff. (No. XXIX). 

3 The name of the scribe has been erased, but he was connected with the Convent 
of Beth- e Abe near caAsn r^in*.M. 



[225] 



1301 A. D. 



Plate CLXXV 



PLATE CLXXV 

1 30 1 A.D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 22, fol. 55V.* 

A Lectionary of the Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews) according to 
the Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 33.5 to 33.7 cm. X 24.2 to 24.6 cm.; 94 leaves; two columns; 
22 lines to the column; columns ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Nes- 
torian. The scribe was a deacon named Zechariah bar Joseph, and he was 
a native or resident of the city of IL^i*.. The manuscript was written in 
JL^jljl, in Malabar, India. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Colossians 1 : 6-16. 

1 Haziran, An. Graecorum 161 2. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 174 ft. 



[226] 



* 



• • •« 



►pir' 



*>cnl\S v fe?oVi 4&a 




XsunJa W&'o .*Cx&>- 

¥ * 



oiiaa^rvA=A>ai £W*& 







<Cx30a ( i0pJ^3^C^dXC3 

















Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 22, folio 5 5 v. 



Plate CLXXVI 



1380 A. D. 






$A.'fia&o o»j^./a ^ta. <ap ^aaaa .^ ^aaao^, a»a J\j 

^aa^vjia ,Saa .'aai/a .a*, ^o ,&,**> *,£*^ >%» a&ast 

# .aU./aaa* *^=* *pa- ^iiaaa. Jt$*a*a -£o <>*a\a>a Jo>«*pa 

'.°-»*a»/«*»*^ *fraaa\»6>/ aao i <v tt » W-i ataW> t^w e*aaa_ 

Aoa^^ioaa.^oo)^^^ *^a /*»>* ^^ ^a\ <&,„> 

^ifiaoa^o*!^ e*a*»a/£aa*aa J*±»ta -o>aaaal$ *«fo ,» 

^oa.^ Aa AaSl A- ^aafca tfa ^*^. f^til^ >a- 

» yf t tVSfc /&«**»*. /a<s>*a ^-JU»^ipa 4syav;*ao&t&* > 5j 

aAaaaafc&V^g} &< /aq, a» )*ia« oo».^ $W.5> 

ewwasaksa Aa. oasaaata JUk-a; Wt>\ ^-*/ ? » ajjai. 

<$£&> \&e$A **&- &», ^^a £» ^•<'^a **9**a> 

^a6#»$-L* . aa« asaa. «<i»a/ &L. &*lu* .*>a&a ^ 
i^tt.i'M** o)ja iAfi* /&A-t /aWo *£aa^ /£L.a *k- 
•,*-*r **-aa^v/a "^•o»9S^ (A^aV^a Ao.*2iia*«toa A»a*i 
-Aadbjo^uaX-Za £i&»* ./a**&ao Zjvaa o^» /aaii, ft ^» 
*jbaaa./<fM*oapa, As ^a Zlo7*o>^x^oo cUMaar,. A*ax. 
\«. \ii'a»\ v*n> )i*i Alasaaa .*» » /^*s\ <i5oaa /^tr^ 
o>Aa io> ^a.,«^^$<S>e*iaVo ^t ^cvnV a ^j*^ /a» 
^eJ^afis/^^&x- <&»><» ^".^a- ***". V s ** 
Aia ^e>sa ^/a.,^a<Na.^>a ^Jil Aaa.yj&a^i 

«*£a-a<Ao !te9t£, ^aa^aa A/.,Ai ^flufli Wafts &-&^a 

-Z^tipa&aa /«o*>aa ^<i*a ^?. ..^^a./*^***- ^aa- 

/o»L/o>asafjv A..A.aaA /«» a?JA£ao *.Au3Si» #**» 

bsoaaj^a* -»<M^ A* A/./akja^. Z^aua ^^ 



^a'^i >4lo car? >*n^Aia*cSa. flS^a <&o>3 ^aJLta./^Vs 

Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchal Library- 
Cod. Syr. 1.0, folio 161 



PLATE CLXXVI 

1380 A. D. 1 
Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchal Library, Cod. Syr. 10, fol. 161. 2 

Isho'dadh, An Explanation of Difficult Passages in the Holy Scriptures. 

Paper; 26.4 to 26.8 cm. X 15.8 to 16.9 cm.; 428 leaves; one column; 
31 lines to the page; lines ruled with lead; ink black; Nestorian. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Isho'dadh's com- 
mentary on Judges 4: 1 1 ff. This work has apparently not been published. 

1 Ab 16, An. Graecorum 1691. 

2 For a description of this codex see J. B. Chabot, Notice sur les manuscrits syria- 
ques conserves dans la Bihliotheque du Patriarcat Grec Orthodoxe de Jerusalem (Paris, 
1894), p. 18 (which is also published in the Journal Asiatique, Neuvieme Serie, III, 
p. 105); and K. IVl. Koikylides, KaTciAoyos 'SwoTm/cos t&v iv rtj Bty8Ato^/cjy tov 'lepov 
Kowov tov Havayiov Ta<f>ov airoKeijxiviov %vpiaK&v Xapoypd<t>(ov (Berlin, 1898), pp. 1 1 f . 

3 The name of the scribe and that of the place where the manuscript was written 
are not given. 



[227] 



PLATE CLXXVII 

1477 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 186, fol. 22. 2 

Gregory bar Hebraeus, A Metrical Discourse arranged in Distichs on 
Divine Things and on the Perfection of the Life of Wise Ascetics (!>*>Jbo 
JLi^o;) ; 3 id., Another Poem; 4 Gabriel of Mosul, A Poem on God, the Creation 
of the World, the Incarnation, etc. (J^-jcl^) ; Kamis bar Qardahe, Sixty-five 
Poems on Various Religious and Theological Subjects ((K^jo^); 5 id., Short 
Poems (1*51) ; 6 id., Festal Canticles ({^s^dflo); 7 and Rabban Isaac, A Short 
Poem (KVL). 8 

Paper; 17.8 to 18 cm. X 12.9 to 13.3 cm.; 248 leaves; one column; 20 
lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Nestorian. The scribe 
was a priest named 'Isa bar Isaac, and he was a native or resident of the 
village of Telia (Jit). The manuscript was written in the village of JLuu.^ 
in the diocese of Mosul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Gregory's Metrical 
Discourse on Divine Things and on the Perfection of the Life of Wise 
Ascetics. This poem has apparently not been published. 9 

1 Second Teshrin 29, An. Graecorum 1789. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, pp. 401 ft. 

3 Each alternate distich was written by Kamis bar Qardahe. 

4 For the beginning of this short poem see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, p. 401. 

5 For the subjects of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
pp. 401 ff. 

6 For the classes of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus III, 
p. 403. 

7 For the subjects of these see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus 
III, p. 403. 

8 For the beginning of this poem see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus III, p. 403. 

9 It is not included in A. Scebabi's Gregorii bar-Hebraei Carmina (Rome, 1877). 



[2281 



1477 A. D. 



Plate CLXXVII 



. JjakfcSe**? <na /**** "«o^ }$*&* SX^io 

./&£jfc* ^ iJjvAR- 3*3* kocja iwsi 

.ov-fi^sjsl o«n k*6 3ta&n jioe^ JxSl 

, 'jhiki* t^ &\o ^*3o» v^ ? J&. j-so &*!. 

.. 9^s»a &J£^ 6>A*J oi^-io ««* «^y» 

.Si gfr . ' - i*3feo JL^3^ iaonfti ep\»a Jj*JQ 

, w-»ap\o^*^ *Ly%l >^xx[ fc!w» keen Jo* 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 186, folio 22 



Plate CLXXVIII 



1484 A. D. 






II laoV> « ^»£sg£ <^g^ *fl*ufo M t fry « • 




^?^Ijli!Uq L/^U^oS^ ^i^^^^^ 
% *UGs*kAps lAlbov^v W^*4uAflJ^> ZitW* 

{&« J&to Lo^O Jft^, <* ^>90 fei^ vW^ . 

HM*^>n » r IflPxAVm/^'iiLo /awl** 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7177 (foil. 16-334), folio 187 







PLATE CLXXVIII 

1484 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7177, fol. 187. 2 

Orders and Canons for the Whole Year (^jLiokjLW JbojLoo JUb^^ 
lh±jL ©£^> lijou^); and A Collection of Qale (JU^jj fc^oo} Jbi>a^> )]£). 

Paper; 26.2 to 26.8cm. X 16.9 to 17.6cm.; 358 leaves; 3 one column; 
27 to 29 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black and brownish; 
Nestorian. The scribe was an archdeacon named Yeshu*, and the manu- 
script was written in Mosul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from Orders and Canons 
for the Whole Year. Most of these liturgical texts are published in the 
Breviarium Chaldaicum (Paris, 1 886-1 887). See A. Baumstark, Geschichte 
der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 198, note 9. This breviary is not 
accessible to the present writer. 

1 On the seventh Sunday after Pentecost (^b^ooj), An. Graecorum 1795 
The month and the day of the month are not given. The manuscript is also dated 
An. Hegirae 889, which began on January 30, 1484 A. D., and ended on January 
17, 1485 A. D. The date is on fol. 319V. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, op. cit. y Pars I, 
pp. 55 f. (No. XXXIII). 

3 A number of leaves have been supplied by a later hand. 



[229] 






1498 A. D. 



PLATE CLXXIX 

1498 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7174, fol. 20. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Peshltta Version. 

Paper; 43.3 to 43.7 cm. X 34.4 to 35.1 cm.; 3 219 leaves; two columns; 
16 lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Nestorian; miniatures. The scribe was a priest named Elias Wla 3 d- 
Din (^xXr£*i±0 bar Saiphaya (<ja^), and he was a native or resi- 
dent of Mosul. The manuscript was written in Mosul. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 3: 3-8. 

1 First Teshrin 2, An. Graecorum 1810. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, op. cit., Pars I, pp. 
51 ff. (No. XXX). 

3 The leaves have been restored at the top and bottom and on both sides. 



[230] 



Plate CLXXIX 




CfclllA 



<♦; 












«• 




cask* »tmc^L 









London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7174, folio 20 



Plate CLXXX 



1510 A. D. 



Two*© ©ftNo / ^o** / "ntia j . t nSj 

•M.ni. 2^r\Nu/ -o> .& J Vruao 
f-o^ V»o> Oip© ^/i • J***. 



V Vcy/ ^. ^n -£>uao fe 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 17, folio 94 



I 



PLATE CLXXX 

1510 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 17, fol. 94.* 

The Four Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the Pauline Epistles 
(including Hebrews) according to the Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 15 cm. X 10 to 10.4 cm.; 478 leaves; one column; 20 to 23 lines 
to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Nestorian. The scribe's name 
was Jacob, and he was bishop of India. The manuscript was written in 
the Church of Mar Thomas in the city of JL<^fc, which was called 
>oX^Jo^5, in Malabar, India. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Mark 12: 16-25. 

1 Adar 6, An. Graecorum 1821. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 61 ff. 



[231] 






1544-1545 A. D. 



Plate CLXXXI 



PLATE CLXXXI 

1 544-1 545 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7178, fol. 203. 2 

Treasuries of Feasts and Commemorations for the Whole Year 

Paper; 31.5 cm. X 21 cm.; 465 leaves; one column; 29 lines to the page; 
columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Nestorian. The scribe 
was a priest named 'Atiyeh (U^) ibn Faraj (^a), 3 and the manuscript 
was written in the city of Gazarta near Mount or+a and Mount JJoJLaj 
on the bank of the Tigris. 

Most of these liturgical texts are published in the Breviarium Chaldaicum 
(Paris, 1 886-1 887). See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur 
(Bonn, 1922), p. 198, note 9. This breviary is not accessible to the present 
writer. 

1 An. Graecorum 1856. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, oy. cit., Pars I, 
pp. 56 f. (No. XXXIV). 

3 Rosen and Forshall are wrong in saying that the codex was copied " a quodam 
Hormizda, diacono." See F. Rosen and J. Forshall, op. cxt., Pars I, p. 56, col. 1. 
He wrote a note at the beginning of the manuscript in which he relates that at the 
sacking of a certain monastery the codex was carried off, taken to Mosul, and later 
recovered. 



[232] 






•too* Jafiw? o)^9 *><*a\?b? l»m* » ?&osiq 
ooo>6 .53&a& v^l*4a 9ft&atei oft 2o lodub oii 

fc£fa* ***&,*** kSo* W o*^2 fefrok. 
€u te ri o JbooVjo )^fo9^66oM^.laJ«o 

h&fc* L^oe^o^^^fbl te&p &**&. J»o\Ja 
*Ab? ^napaL'^Bd ♦Jjojja «^a ^to*. '3x 




•A&b? ^tujufaf /soub Ataxia jb^o 



/© .&oj &&»a fcojoid 26.1 ^o oaM&&21& 



36 



)SSaL Zs'Ao/o. yoAX^ cnj^*iaJt.J.&a3u 
m> Jumm ***U ***** )^ft»*f? • *«P» »*** 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7178, folio 203 



Plate CLXXXII 



1574 A. D. 







»• 



M 



• I «*7l» ' ' 










• • 











,1? f V 




UNWV* 



•• i V^i 



t • 




I* 

• •• • 










London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 7175, folio 77 



PLATE CLXXXII 

1574 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 7175, fol. 77* 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Peshitta Version. 

Paper; 29.7 cm. X 20.1 cm.; 136 leaves; two columns; 20 lines to the 
column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; Nestorian. 
The scribe was a priest whose father's name was Simeon, and he was a 
native or resident of the village of Barbaita. The manuscript was written 
in the village of Barbaita, on the hill of M> ^>^>, or ^> ijx>, in the 
region of Gazarta de-Beth-Zabdai. 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Luke 23: 54-56 and Matthew 
27: 62-66. 

1 l\ij\ 11, An. Graecorum 1885. 

2 For a description of this codex see F. Rosen and J. Forshall, of. cit. y Pars I, 
pp. 53 f. (No. XXXI). 



[233] 



PLATE CLXXXIII 

1586 A. D. 1 
Cambridge, University Library, Add. MS. 1975, fol. 12. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels for the Sundays, Festivals, and Commemora- 
tions of the Whole Year according to the Peshitta Version. 3 

Paper; 37.5 cm. X 27.8 to 29.3 cm.; 126 leaves; two columns; 20 and 21 
lines to the column; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Nestorian. The scribe was a priest named Joseph bar David, and he was a 
native or resident of the village of Mansuriyeh, or el-Mansuriyeh, on the 
Tigris, near the Convents of Mar Aha and Mar John. The manuscript 
was written in the village of JL^xao, at the foot of Mount J)o^>, near the 
fortress of ^ojio^. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Luke 2: 21-32. 

1 Ab 10, An. Graecorum 1897. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, A Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1901), 
I, pp. 58 ff. 

3 The lectionary follows the use of the Church of Mosul. 



[234] 



1586 A. D. 



Plate CLXXXIII 



*&aotta AooqX*s>*9 


.-«.aL v* W 


^'4 ^4^, 


«&3.&»«er^&os 


<£8s&J.«iitoSb <L%+ 


<&^«t~»4t,4 M j? 


Apt X**-A*W 






^^^Md%*A^i 


Z^M^Sinc^ 


^^a&k&rfoatoia 


^fa*o.'*»o*£* 


Z-&. l**.i*4 


&&*^a£<4W 


Us&* «flM^£ 


,^i««JUV-iUi < &4 




«&m$ 0^9 


'S tiVft «££** 










«S&«4&ab9 /j>a < wi < i 




o£ /« 7r <%*» - Kg* j 









>a*ftwd 



4 *$ 




w^tm 




9 /# #< 



Cambridge, University Library- 
Add. MS. 1975, folio 12 



Plate CLXXXIV 



1045 A. D. 









••• •< 







London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14489, folio 72 






PLATE CLXXXIV 

1045 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14489, fol. 72. 2 

A Lectionary ( r ;ir>iiom) of the Gospels arranged according to the Mel- 
kite Use; A Calendar of Saints' Days for the Year; and Select Lessons for 
Particular Occasions. 

Vellum; 27.2 to 27.5 cm. X 20.5 to 21.2 cm.; 187 leaves; two columns; 
18 to 24 lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a 
blunt point; ink brown; Melkite. The scribe was a priest named John, and 
he was a native or resident of Duqsa (Jbuaoj) . The manuscript was written 
in the Convent or Laura of Mar Elias on the Black Mountain, which was 
called the Boar's Head, near Antioch. 3 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Luke 15: 32; and 21: 8, 9, 
25-27, and 33-35. They are taken from the Peshitta version. 

1 First Kanun 6, An. Graecorum 1357. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (London, 1 870-1 872), Part I, pp. 200 ff. (No. CCLI). 

3 This monastery was also known as the Convent of Elias the Prophet and the 
Convent of Mar Panteleemon. 



U35] 



1208 A. D. 



Plate CLXXXV 



PLATE CLXXXV 

1208 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 78, fol. 166. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Second Teshrin. 

Paper; 24.7 to 25.6 cm. X 15.6 to 16.3 cm.; 3 199 leaves; one column; 
18 to 22 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black and brown; 
Melkite. The scribe was a monk and priest named John bar Joseph. The 
manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Christopher, which was in 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Coronation of 
the Martyr Jacob Who was cut in Pieces and the Commemoration of Pal- 
ladius (27th of Second Teshrin). This Menaeon has apparently not been 
published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 
1922), p. 337. 

1 First Teshrin 22, An. Graecorum 1520. The manuscript is also dated An. Adae 
6714 and An. Hegirae 604. The year of Adam 6714 began on September 1, 1205 
A. D., and ended on August 31, 1206 A. D. The Mohammedan year 604 began on 
July 28, 1207 A. D., and ended on July 15, 1208 A. D. The dating according to the 
Seleucid year is more likely to be right than either of the others. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 443 ff. 

3 The leaves have been framed in white paper, and they are at present 31.2 cm. 
in height and 21 cm. in width. 



[236] 







•Jjftxikxs* ^£50 » &» Jbntlss* -jute* 








'of*za-LaX2a fr'p^fln aim, 






j 



Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 78, folio 166 



Plate CLXXXVI 



1213 A. D. 






<ri^ 



yc^A cuilc aesM* Itsaf* £u ^±b» 

- <*=*»? ttf±&* ste* Vol 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 21031, folio 63 



PLATE CLXXXVI 

1213 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 21 031, fol. 63. 2 

An Octoechus for the Ferial Days according to the Melkite Use. 

Paper; 24.9 to 25.3 cm. X 16.5 to 17.7 cm.; 324 leaves; one column; 
14 to 24 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a 
blunt point; ink brown and black; Melkite. The scribe's name was Joseph 
bar e Antar. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Second Tone. 
It has apparently not been published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der 
syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), pp. 337 f. 

1 Shebat 9, An. Graecorum 1 524. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 327 f . (No. 
CCCCXVIII). 

3 The name of the village in which the manuscript was written has been erased, 
and that of Ma*lula (y^Jl*0 has been substituted for it. The erased name began 
with j. 



[237] 



PLATE CLXXXVII 

1222 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 14711, fol. 74.* 

Select Offices for Various Occasions according to the Melkite Use. 

Paper; 25.6 to 26.1 cm. X 16.8 to 17.6 cm.; 220 leaves; one column; 
1 8 to 22 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Melkite. The scribe's name was Peter bar Mark, and he was a native 
or resident of Dara. 3 The codex once belonged to the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara in Nitria. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a service for the 
Festival of the Exaltation of the Venerable Cross. These offices have ap- 
parently not been published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen 
Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Tammuz 17, An. Graecorum 1533. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit. y Part I, pp. 320 f . (No. 
CCCCIX). 

3 The colophon has l)>, which is probably a mistake for lh or \i\y. The name 
of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[238] 



1222 A. D. 



Plate CLXXXVII 
















$S 



J*£*4**f ***** «^»Xi.^^ 




^*i&3 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14711, folio 74 



Plate CLXXXVIII 



L&» k?tf«fa^^a* 1^2*3 %^ 



1236 A. D. 



> ^j& 



.— .~_\A anWo Aa£=»/* • 



MM 



£93£3#« 



♦;>/aL^o /»Aa^ lx&t»> .P^*olA crMfcnkJ 

..^4m^&? q*U&> A»*«fc >^»S5p 4^/J*Xj* 

llju^aa^ .trULia ?A<£a£ C^mo .Zap lic^tA^ -&>^ /W**» 
/ ,yn » - •Ao^f ifcu/^o itovo */irtU Cyia . WS$ *'^> t 

*u0 eJDliia^Ji^ow tfojLsa .p^ii ^i> yg^. 
Zxum&o ./5uA4£ita #^S||^ 










Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 80, folio 58 



PLATE CLXXXVIII 

1236 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 80, fol. 58. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Adar. 

Paper; 33.9 to 34.3 cm. X 24.4 to 24.6 cm.; 100 leaves; one column; 
20 to 25 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
brown; Melkite. The scribe was a priest and the son of a certain 'Aziz, but 
his name is not given. The manuscript was written in the village of ^Jbjj. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a Commemoration of 
Cyril of Jerusalem (18th of Adar). This Menaeon has apparently not been 
published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 
1922), p. 337. 

1 Ab 14, An. Graecorum 1547. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 450 ff. 



[239] 




PLATE CLXXXIX 

1258-1259 A. D. 1 
London, British Museum, Add. MS. 147 10, fol. 180. 2 

An Octoechus for Sundays and Ferial Days according to the Melkite Use. 

Paper; 22.4 to 22.5 cm. X 15.2 to 15.5 cm.; 228 leaves; one column; 
16 to 22 lines to the page; columns and top and bottom lines ruled with a 
blunt point; ink black and brown; Melkite. The scribe was a priest named 
Mamar (;.viv*>) , and he was a native or resident of Qara (!>jL©) . 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Eighth Tone. 
It has apparently not been published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der 
syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), pp. 337 f. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 570. The month and the day of the month are not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, of. cit., Part I, p. 325 (No. 
CCCCXV). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[240] 






1258-1259 A. D. 



Plate CLXXXIX 









•Joe? *\}#*fi&jga*.tek A^/iaa < 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 14710, folio 180 



Plate CXC 



1284 A. D. 



«&££zi<*tfcJ Jb^Uifc* Jtfiii^ vuui v^er *ae 



London, British Museum 
Add. MS. 17236, folio 114 






PLATE CXC 

1284 A. D. 1 

London, British Museum, Add. MS. 17236, fol. 114. 2 

An Eclogadion (Part II), containing Lessons for the Months from 
Shebat to Ah (inclusive). 

Paper; 26.8 to 27 cm. X 18.2 to 18.7 cm.; 242 leaves; one column; 20 
lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Melkite. The scribe's 
name was Gerasimus ibn Sim'an, and he was a native or resident of the 
village of er-Rummaneh (SU^Ih in the district of ez-Zabadani ^»*Ujlh 
near Damascus. The manuscript was written in the Convent of St. Mary 
Deipara on the river Kaftun ( ( okaus) near Tripolis. 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from the Commemoration 
of Sts. Peter and Paul (29th of Hazfran). This Eclogadion has apparently 
not been published. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur 
(Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Nisan 20, An. Graecorum 1595. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, op. cit., Part I, pp. 318 ff. (No. 
CCCCVIII). 



[241] 



1418 A. D. 



Plate CXCI 



PLATE CXCI 

1418 A.D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Dawkins MS. 5, fol. 173V. 2 

A Melkite Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Peshitta Version 
Paper; 31.5 to 32.2 cm. X 20 to 20.9 cm.; 220 leaves; two columns; 

21 to 24 lines to the column; columns ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 

Melkite. The scribe's name was Moses bar Jacob, and he was a native or 

resident of a village in the region of Tripolis near Mount Lebanon. The 

name of the village has been erased. 8 

The passage reproduced in the plate is Matthew 27: 6-19. 

1 Tammuz 1, An. Graecorum 1729. The manuscript is also dated An. Adae 6926 
(i.e. 141 8 A. D.) and 1426 A. D. The Seleucid and Mundane date is more likely 
to be right than that which is reckoned from the birth of Christ. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. cit., cols. 114 ff. (No. 

38). 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[242] 







.fj&SsASMi ft • OP* t» * 



^£h*& i+aXZaJxI 1 ski % 
&*ml *oooi 



,\& v| **m^ J)L?Vwftaa(Mj » • opt t^i 



Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Dawkins MS. 5, folio 173v. 




Plate CXCII 



1448 A. D. 







■■£?. as *; 




Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 338, folio 110 



PLATE CXCII 

1448 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 338, fol. no. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Haziran. 

Paper; 17.4 to 18.3 cm. X 13.7 to 13.9 cm.; 284 leaves; one column; 
13 and 14 lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Melkite. The 
scribe was a priest named Abraham bar Joseph, and the manuscript was 
written in the Church of Mar George in the village of Qara (UJ^). 

The passage reproduced in the plate seems to be taken either from a 
Commemoration of the Prophet Elisha (14th of Haziran) or from a Com- 
memoration of the Prophet Amos (15th of Haziran). This Menaeon has 
apparently not been published. 

1 Shebat 9, An. Adae 6956. 

2 This codex is not included in the catalogue of Zotenberg (1874) or in the 
Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques de la Bibliotheque Nationale of J. B. Chabot 
(Paris, 1896), which is also published in the Journal Asiatique, Neuvieme Serie, 
VIII, pp. 234 ff. It was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale after 1896. 



[M3] 



1477 A. D. 



Plate CXCIII 



PLATE CXCIII 

1477 A. D. 1 
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 340, fol. 32V. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Second Kanun. 

Paper; 19.4 to 22.5 cm. X 12.4 to 15 cm.; 287 leaves; one column; 19 
lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Melkite. The scribe's 
name was Saliba, and the manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar 
George el-Kafur on Mount Lebanon. 

The passage reproduced in the plate seems to be taken from an Office 
for the Vigil of the Epiphany and a Commemoration of the Prophet Malachi 
(3rd of Second Kanun). This Menaeon has apparently not been published. 
See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Tammuz 5, An. Adae 6985. 

2 For a description of this codex see A. Mai, Serif torum Veterum Nova Collectio 
(Rome, 1825-1838), V, Part II, p. 33 (No. CCCXL). 



[244] 















Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 340, folio 32v. 
















Plate CXCIV 1494 A - D - 

test***** 




*T^ 



^*^*b>~W&3L^tf^ Ml 



© 



si 

• 









1^ 



t 






•A 



*- 



AX-o 



5 X^-if^c>f-&^^[g*i)> 



Cambridge, University Library 
Add. MS. 2880, folio 102 v. 






PLATE CXCIV 

1494 A. D. 1 
Cambridge, University Library, Add. MS. 2880, fol. 102V. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Iyar. 

Paper; 26.1 to 26.4 cm. X 17.5 to 17.8 cm.; 143 leaves; one column; 
1 8 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Melkite. The scribe was a priest named John bar Abraham. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from a Commemoration 
of the Martyrs Meletius, Stephen, John, and their Companions (23rd of 
Iyar). This Menaeon has apparently not been published. See A. Baum- 
stark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Nisan 22, An. Adae 7002. 

2 For a description of this codex see W. Wright, A Catalogue of the Syriac Manu- 
scripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1901), 
II, pp. 707 ft. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



U45] 



I 



PLATE CXCV 

1 494-1 495 A. D. 1 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Cod. Syr. 141, fol. yS. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Tammuz. 

Paper; 29.2 to 29.5 cm. X 20.1 to 21.7 cm.; 201 leaves; one column; 20 
lines to the page; apparently no ruling; ink black; Melkite. The scribe was 
a priest named Jacob bar John, and he was a native or resident of Hardin. 3 

The passage reproduced in the plate is taken from an Office for the 
Feast of the Archangel Gabriel and a Commemoration of the Apostle Aquila 
(13th of Tammuz). This Menaeon has apparently not been published. See 
A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 An. Graecorum 1 806. The month and the day of the month are not given. The 
manuscript is also dated An. Adae 7003, which began on September 1, 1494 A. D., 
and ended on August 31, 1495 A. D. Therefore the codex was finished between 
October 1, 1494, and August 31, 1495 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see H. Zotenberg, op. cit., pp. 100 f. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



1494-1495 A. D. 



[246] 



Plate CXCV 



kx*k* .fa* jisasj <&au* » /*t=a \*r»S 




Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 
Cod. Syr. 141, folio 78 



Plate CXCVI 



1556 A. D. 



• ** 



Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Dawkins MS. 60, folio 170 






PLATE CXCVI 

1556 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Dawkins MS. 60, fol. 170. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Ab. 

Paper; 27.3 to 27.9 cm. X 17.7 to 18.3 cm.; 212 leaves; 3 one column; 
1 6 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink black; 
Melkite. The scribe was a deacon named Gerasimus bar Joseph; and the 
manuscript was written in the Convent of Mar Basil, which belonged to 
the district of Damascus. 

The passage reproduced in the plate seems to be taken from a Com- 
memoration of the Martyr Eutyches, a Disciple of John the Theologian 
(24th of Ab). This Menaeon has apparently not been published. See A. 
Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Adar 6, An. Adae 7064. The colophon is in Syriac and in Arabic. Dr. Payne 
Smith gives the date as 1564 A. D.; but the colophon, which he correctly transcribes, 
has An. Adae 7064 both in the Syriac and in the Arabic text. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in of. cih, cols. 365 ff. (No. 
118). 

3 There were originally 226 leaves, of which 14 have been lost. Two folia are 
numbered 42. 



[247] 



PLATE CXCVII 

1595 A. D. 1 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Dawkins'MS. 49, fol. io6v. 2 

A Menaeon for the Month of Ilul. 

Paper; 26.7 to 27.7 cm. X 17.6 to 18.5 cm.; 151 leaves; 3 one column; 
1 7 to 19 lines to the page; columns and lines ruled with a blunt point; ink 
black; Melkite. The scribe's name was Zosimus (U-m-jj) ibn David, and he 
was a native or resident of jljk* in the district of Tripolis. 4 

The passage reproduced in the plate seems to be taken either from the 
Coronation of the Martyr Euphemia of Chalcedon (16th of Ilul) or from 
the Coronation of the Martyrs Sophia and Her Three Daughters ( 1 7th of 
Ilul). This Menaeon has apparently not been published. See A. Baum- 
stark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), p. 337. 

1 Ilul 24, An. Hegirae 1004. This year began on September 6, 1595 A. D., and 
ended on August 24, 1 596 A. D. 

2 For a description of this codex see R. Payne Smith in op. cit., cols. 324 f. (No. 

99)- 

3 There were originally 1 79 leaves, of which 28 have been lost. 

4 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[248] 



1595 A. D. 

- 
» * 



Plate CXCVII 






r? 



£&SL m 



A^tf 






mmmm m 



l k 7oi O .\xfiu3L. a 

f. • . « - « 

^c^*a <#LAiV t=u^/ ^ .V'*4&J 

. • • .. ■ „. " * -. * ♦ < j 







«> 

■ i 1 



:f%±li^!ioj'^> <^» ^Jd^Q) ; )^' C * ?6*p 




Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Dawkins MS. 49, folio 106v. 









•' 












Plate CXCVffl 



1030 A. D. 






•# 






** % * 






-GOtlAJjO* 







Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 
Cod. Vat. Sir. 19, folio 87 



PLATE CXCVIII 

1030 A. D. 1 

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. Sir. 19, fol. 87.' 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Palestinian Version. 3 
Vellum; 22.7 to 23 cm. X 17.3 to 17.8 cm.; 196 leaves; two columns; 20 to 25 
lines to the column; columns and top and bottom lines ruled sometimes with lead 
and sometimes with a blunt point; ink black and brown; Palestinian. 4 The scribe 
was a priest named Elias el-Abudi (*3Cto&JW) ; 5 and the manuscript was written 
in the Convent of Anba Musa in Antioch, in the district of ed-Dqus (dujjrdi 
0000:1^ = ^33^1 id-U"). 6 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Mark 8: 27-31 and 10: 32 and 33. See 
F. Miniscalchi Erizzo, op. cit., I, pp. 257 ff.; and P. de Lagarde, op. cit., pp. 322 and 324. 

1 Ab, An. Graecorum 1341. The day of the month is not given. 

2 For a description of this codex see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, 
Tomus II, pp. 70 ff . 

3 This version was used by the Melkite Christians of Palestine, and the language 
in which it is written closely resembles that of the Samaritans and Jews of Palestine 
before Arabic became the vernacular of the country. For the text see F. Miniscalchi 
Erizzo, Evangeliarium Hierosolymitanum (Verona, 1 861-1864); P. de Lagarde, 
Bibliothecae Syriacae (Gottingen, 1892), pp. 257 ff.; and A. S. Lewis and M. D. 
Gibson, The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (London, 1899). 

4 On this style of writing see G. H. Gwilliam and J. F. Stenning in Anecdota 
Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, Part IX, pp. 102 ff. 

5 hJhXOra^Ard , which is wrongly given by the Assemanis as ^las^Ar^ (see 
S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus II, p. 101), denotes the place from 
which Elias came. It does not refer to the family or tribe to which he belonged, 
as Professor Zahn thought. See Th. Zahn, Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutesta- 
mentlichen Kanons und der altchristlichen Literatur (Erlangen and Leipzig, 1881-), 

I, p. 331. In 1843 D r - Eli Smith visited a "large town" called Abud which was 
about two miles northwest of Tibneh in the region of Mount Ephraim, and he found 
there "about 100 Muslim men and 50 Christians of the Greek church/' See Eli 
Smith in Bibliotheca Sacra, 1843, p. 486. In 1873 *Abud is said to have been " a large 
and flourishing Christian village/' containing at that time " 400 Greek Christians and 
100 Moslems." See The Survey of Western Palestine (1 881-1883), H, p. 289. In 
the eleventh and early twelfth centuries *Abud seems to have been an important 
center for the Melkite Christians of Palestine. For another Melkite scribe connected 
with this place see the text facing Plate CXCIX. 

6 GoOaa<< is not a mistake for el-Quds (^oiJl), i.e. Jerusalem, as has been 
conjectured. See S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus II, p. 101. It is 
Duqsa (<<flooGa), a town in the vicinity of Antioch, which was known as rb Aov£ 
in Greek. The name may be derived from the Latin dux, the head of the civil 
government in that region. See F. C. Burkitt in The Journal of Theological Studies, 

II, pp. 177 ff. "Antioch of the Arabs/' as the city was called in a colophon no longer 
legible (see S. E. and J. S. Assemani, op. cit., Pars I, Tomus II, p. 102), has been 
identified with Gerasa, the modern Jerash, which was once known as Antiochia ad 
Chrysorrhoam. See J. P. N. Land, Anecdota Syriaca (Leiden, 1 862-1 875), IV, pp. 
228 f.; and Th. Zahn, op. cit., I, pp. 331 f. But the Antioch mentioned in the colophon 
as being in the district of ed-Dqus must be Antioch in Syria. The phrase " Antioch 
of the Arabs " may denote, as Dr. Burkitt suggests (in op. cit., II, p. 179) " that part 

[249] 



PLATE CXCIX 

1 104 A. D. 1 
Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent, Cod. Syr. 1 (Palestinian Syriac), 

fol. 3 8. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Palestinian Version. 

Vellum; 24 cm. X 18 cm.; 156 leaves; 3 two columns; 24 lines to 
the column; apparently no ruling; ink blackish brown; Palestinian. The 
scribe was a priest named Mafrig (^A*tfik£a) ibn Abu 1-Hair el-'Abudi 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Matthew 6: 30-34 and 8: 14- 
20. See A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, op. cit., pp. 71 f. 

of the district which in the eleventh century was still under Mohammedan dominion, 
or possibly the non-Greek quarter of the city itself/' The Greeks captured Antioch 
from the Mohammedans in 969 A. D., and thereafter the city seems to have become 
a center for the Melkite Christians of Palestine. The manuscript was not written " in 
a convent at a place called e Abud, not very far from Jerusalem," as Dr. Wright and 
Professor Gregory assert. See W. Wright, A Short History of Syriac Literature 
(London, 1894), p. 18; and C. R. Gregory in the Prolegomena to Teschendorf's 
Novum Testamentum Graece (eighth ed., Leipzig, 1 869-1 894), III, p. 812. 

1 Shebat 26, An. Adae 6612. 

2 For a description of this codex see A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, The Palestinian 
Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (London, 1899), pp. xii f . The date given by Mrs. 
A. S. Lewis in her Catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the Convent of S. Catharine on 
Mount Sinai (Studia Sinaitica, No. I, London, 1894), p. 93 is wrong. The facsimile 
of fol. 38 is taken from Plate IV in the latter work. For a facsimile of another leaf 
see A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, op. cit., opposite p. 168. 

3 Folia 153-156 have been taken from another Palestinian Syriac lectionary. Two 
more leaves from the same lectionary are bound up in the cover of the codex, one at 
the beginning and the other at the end. 

4 :ior>^Ard should be A^or)^-ir^. The name of the place where the manu- 
script was written is not given. 



[250] 












V 



1104 A. D. 



Ml 



Plate CXCIX 









nXnoy Q^x-i ^sost 








Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent 
Cod. Syr. 1 (Palestinian Syriac), folio 38 






Plate CC 



1118 A. D. 












ar» 



Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent 
Cod. Syr. 2 (Palestinian Syriac), folio 3 8 v. 



PLATE CC 

1118A.D. 1 
Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent, Cod. Syr. 2 (Palestinian Syriac), 

fol. 3 8v. 2 

A Lectionary of the Gospels according to the Palestinian Version. 

Vellum; 22 cm. X 16 cm.; 156 leaves; two columns; 21 to 24 lines to 
the column; apparently no ruling; ink black; Palestinian. The scribe was 
a priest named Peter (coevO^a) . 3 

The passages reproduced in the plate are Matthew 6: 34 and 8: 14-23. 
See A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, of. cit., pp. 71 f. 

1 Ab 10, An. Adae 6626. 

2 For a description of this codex see A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, The Palestinian 
Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (London, 1899), p. xiii. The date given by Mrs. 
A. S. Lewis in her Catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the Convent of S. Catharine on 
Mount Sinai (Studia Sinaitica, No. I, London, 1894), p. 93 is wrong. The facsimile 
of fol. 38V. is taken from Plate V in the latter work. For a facsimile of another leaf 
see A. S. Lewis and M. D. Gibson, op. cit., opposite p. 201. 

3 The name of the place where the manuscript was written is not given. 



[251] 



INDEXES 






PAGE 

I. Index of Manuscripts Arranged According to Present Location. . 255 

II. Index to the Introduction 258 

III. Index of Biblical Books and Lectionaries 264 

IV. Index of Authors and Their Works 265 

V. Index of Anonymous Works 272 

VI. Index of Scribes 275 

VII. Index of Other Persons 277 

VIII. Index of Churches and Convents 278 

IX. Index of Cities, Towns, Villages, Etc 280 

X. Index of Syriac Names and Words 282 

XI. Index of Arabic Names and Words 285 

XII. Index of Hebrew, Greek, and Coptic Names and Words 286 



253 



I 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO 
PRESENT LOCATION 



Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek: 

Cod Syr. 20 (Sachau 236) Plate XCIV 

26 (Sachau 321) LIII 

88 (Petermann I, 9) CLXXIII 

206 (Petermann I, Syr. 23) CXLV 

Cambridge, University Library: 

Add. MS. 1700 Plate CXXIX 

1975 CLXXXIII 

2003 CXXXVIII 

2880 CXCIV 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard 
University, Semitic Museum: 
Cod. Syr. 115 Plate XCV 

Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana: 
Plut. I, Cod. 40 Plate LIV 

56 XXXIV 

Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchal Library: 
Cod. Syr. 10 Plate CLXXVI 

Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark: 
Cod. 25 Plate LXXVI 

27 LXXXII 

28 XC 



Leningrad, Public Library: 
Cod. Syr. 1 Plate 



III 



London, British Museum: 




Add. MS. 7157 




Plate 


CLXIII 


7173 






CLXXIV 


7174 






CLXXIX 


7175 






CLXXXII 


7177 






CLXXVIII 


7178 






CLXXXI 


7i94 






CXLII 


12134 






XLV 


12135 


(foil. 


i-43) 


L 


12135 


(foil. 


44-207) 


XXXIX 


12138 






CLXVI 


12.139 






LXXVII 


1 2 144 






LXXIX 


12145 


(foil. 


181-189) 


CXX 


12148 






LXXVIII 


12150 






I 


12151 






LX 



12152 


LXV1 




C LXVII 
1 CI 


12,153 


12.159 


cv 


1 2160 (foil. 1-108) 


XXXIII 


12165 


CXIX 


12166 (foU. 155-258) 


XXIII 


12167 


CVII 


12170 (foil. 1-135) 


XXXVIII 


1 21 71 (foil. I-64) 


LXI 


I4425 


IV 


14430 


XLIX 


14445 


XIV 


14459 (foil. 67-169) 


XIII 


14460 


CLX 


14469 


LXXIII 


1 447 1 


CLXI 


14478 


XLII 


14479 


XVI 


14485 


LXIV 


14486 


LXV 


14489 


CLXXXIV 


14490 


LXXX 


14492 


CLXIV 


14498 


CXXVII 


14510 


CXXII 


14512 


II 


I45I5 


CXII 


14530 


XVIII 


14542 


VII 


14548 


XCVI 


14558 


XXIV 


I457I 


X 


14579 


LXXI 


14580 


CIV 


14582 


XCVII 


14587 


XXXVII 


14593 


LXII 


14597 


XXX 


14599 


XXIX 


14610 


XXI 


14621 


LIX 


14623 


XCVIII 


14647 


XLIV 


14650 


CVI 


14651 


CII 


14666 


XLIII 



2.55 






256 


INDI 


iXES 






14668 (foil. 40-43) 


cm 




1 (Palestinian Syriac) 


CXCIX 


14668 (fol. 46) 


CXI 




2 (Palestinian Syriac) 


CC 


14679 


cxxv 








14686 


XCIII 




New Haven, Connecticut, Yale 




1 469 1 (foil. 1-109) 


CXXXIV 




University Library: 




14692 (foil. 25-99) 


CXLIII 


Cod 


. Z 107.31 Plate 


CLXVII 


14699 


CXXXIX 




Newton Center, Massachusetts, , 


Andover 


14710 


CLXXXIX 




Newton Theological School: 




14711 


CLXXXVII 


MS. 


ZE 607-1198 Plate 


CLXVIII 


14714 


CXXIII 








14734 (foil. 1-176) 


CXXIV 




Oxford, Bodleian Library: 




17102 


XXXVI 


Dawkins MS. 5 


CXCI 


17107 


XIX 




49 


CXCVII 


17109 


LXX 




60 


CXCVI 


17m 


CXIV 


Huntington MS. 490 


CXLI 


17126 


VIII 


Marshall MS. 437 Plate 


CLIII 


17130 


CVIII 




528 


CLIX 


17152 


XXXV 




664 


CXLVII 


17157 


XXVIII 




671 (foil. 1-44) 


CXXVI 


1 71 60 (foil. 29 and 30) 


LVIII 


Pococke MS. 86 


CLVI 


17169 
17170 


XXXI 
LVII 




Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale: 




17172 


LXIII 


Cod 


. Syr. 27 (foil. 94V.- 1 49) Plate 


XLVII 


1 71 74 


cxv 




3i 


LXXXVIII 


17176 


XV 




32 


CLXX 


1 71 82 (foil. 1-99) 


VI 




39 


LXXXVI 


1 71 82 (foil. 100-175) 


IX 




40 


LXXXIV 


17194 


ex 




44 


CLIV 


1 72 1 5 (foil. 5 and 6) 


c 




46 


LXXXIX 


17229 (foil. 1-47) 

17231 

17232 


CXXXIII 

CLII 

CXXXII 




47 
52 


CXLVI 

LXXXI 

CXXVIII 


17236 


exc 




54 


LXXXV 


17256 


XCII 




55 


LXXXVII 


17922 


CLXxn 




56 


CXXXVII 


1 88 1 9 (foil. 92-109) 
21031 


CIX 
CLXXXVI 




67 
68 


CXXX 
CXLVIII 


21210 


CXXXVI 




69 


XLI 


21580 


CL 




141 


CXCV 


Egerton MS. 681 


CLXIX 




154 


CXVII 


Orient. MS. 10 17 


CXLIV 




236 


CXXXI 


5021 


CXIII 




338 


CXCII 


8606 


XLVIII 




342 


CLXV 


8729 


XCI 




346 


CXL 


8731 


LI 




Rome, see Vatican City. 




8732 (foil. 1-56) 


LVI 




Stocksund, Sweden, Property of Mr. 


Library of A. Chester Beatty, Esq.: 
Cod. Syr. 1 Plate CLXII 


Frag 


and Mrs. E. G. Wiren: 
. XVIII (recto) Plate 


CXVI 


3 

4 


LXXXIII 
CLXXI 




Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica 
Vaticana : 


Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana: 




Cod 


Vat. Sir. 1 Plate 


LXXII 


No. 20 (in paper folder) Plate 


XL 




12 


XX 


22 (in paper folder) 


XVII 




13 

14 


LII 
LXXIV 


Mount Sinai, St. Catharine's Convent: 




17 


CLXXX 


Cod. Syr. 30 Plate 


XLVI 




18 


CLI 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



19 


CXCVIII 


116 


21 


CXXI 


121 


22 


CLXXV 


122 


29 


CLV 


137 


33 


CXLIX 


138 


67 


CLVII 


I40 


78 


CLXXXV 


1 43 


80 


CLXXXVIII 


147 


92 


XCIX 


152 


94 


CXVIII 


160 


104 


XXVII 


186 


in 


XI 


268 


112 


XXII 


340 



2<57 

LXVIII 

CLVIII 

LV 

XXVI 

XXXII 

XII 

XXV 

CXXXV 

LXXV 

V 

CLXXVII 

LXIX 

CXCIII 



u 



INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION 



T^ , forms of, p. 31. 

^s , p. 40. 

Abu 'Obaid el-Qasim ibn Sallam, p. 6. 

Acacia tree, p. 10. 

Acetic acid, p. 11. 

Adam, year of, p. 19. 

Akarshuni, p. 42. 

Alcohol, p. 11. 

Aleppo, pp. 12, n. 1; 45. 

Alexander the Great, p. 18. 

Alexandria, p. 3. 

'All, p. 45. 

Alphabet or alphabets, 

native, p. 43. 

Palestinian, p. 29; 29, n. 29. 

Palmyrene cursive, p. 29, n. 29. 

Syriac, p. 43. 
Ammonium hydrosulphide, p. 5. 
Antioch, pp. 9; 18; 29; 30; 45. 
Apamea, p. 18. 
Arab conquest, p. 19. 
Arabs, pp. 6; 9; 45. 
Arabic, pp. 42; 43. 
Aramaic, pp. 24; 30. 
Aristocracy, Meccan, p. 45. 
Arithmetical figures, Syriac, pp. 17; 17, n. 1; 23; 

23, n. 4. 
Armagh, p. 43; 

Book of, p. 43. 
Armenian, an, p. 44. 
Arta, p. 11; 11, n. 4. 
Artists, 

Byzantine, p. 21, n. 6. 

Syrian, p. 20. 
Ascension, the, picture of, p. 22. 
Asia Minor, p. 3. 

Babylonia, p. 18. 

Bar Hebraeus, p. 26. 

Bardesanes, alphabet of, p. 17; 17, n. 2. 

Barsaum, Archbishop, p. 42, n. 1. 

Beth-' Abe, Convent of, p. 9. 

Beth-Nuhadra, p. 28. 

Beth-Zagba, p. 20. 

Black Mountain, p. 29. 

Boehmeria nivea, p. 7. 

Book or books, 

multiple-quire, p. 23. 

one-quire, p. 23; 23, n. 1. 



Bostra, p. 18. 

Broussonetia papyrifera, p. 7. 

Byzantine period, p. 27. 

Calligonum comosum, p. 11. 

Calligraphers, Jacobite, p. 27. 

Calligraphy, art of, pp. 12; 26. 

Carbon, p. 11. 

Chalcedon, Council of, pp. 7; 28. 

Chalk, p. 4. 

Characters. See also Letters. 

Estrangela, pp. 25, n. 3; 30; 

Greek, pp. 43; 44. 

Latin, p. 44. 

Syriac, p. 43. 
China, p. 6. 
China grass, p. 7. 
Chinese, p. 6. 
Chosroes II, pp. 18; 45. 
Christian Palestinian, see Script, Palestinian. 
Christianity, p. 45; 

Syrian, p. 28. 
Christians, p. 45; 

of St. Thomas, p. 43. 
Church, Byzantine, p. 19. 

Codex or codices, pp. 3; 4; 8; 13; 15; 15, n. 2; 
17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 21, n. 5; 22; 23; 26; 
27; 30; 35; 37; 41; 42; 44; 46. See also 
Manuscript or manuscripts. 

dated Syriac, p. 45. 

dating of, p. 18. 

earliest, p. 22. 

earliest dated Serta, p. 27. 

earliest dated Syriac, p. 15, n. 8. 

earliest Serta, pp. 32; 33; 34; 39. 

earliest without ruling, p. 17. 

Estrangela, pp. 14; 28; 31; 32; 33; 36; 38; 
40; 42. 

four-column, p. 13. 

Greek, pp. 19; 20, n. 14; 21, n. 6; 24, n. 5. 

Melkite, pp. 14; 29; 31; 32; 33; 38; 39; 40. 

Melkite, classes of, p. 47. 

most ancient Syriac, p. 25. 

multiple-quire, p. 23. 

Nestorian, pp. 14; 28; 32; 36; 37; 40; 41. 

Nestorian, classes of, p. 46. 

oldest dated Estrangela, p. 25. 

oldest dated Palestinian, p. 30. 

one-column, pp. 13; 14. 



258 



INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION 



259 



one-quire, p. 23, n. 3. 

paper, pp. 6; 6, n. 12, 13, 14; 7; 7, n. 20, 21. 

ruled with ink, p. 16, n. 13. 

Serta, pp. 14; 28; 35; 38; 39; 40; 41. 

single-quire, p. 23. 

Syriac, pp. 5; 8; 25. 

three-column, pp. 13; 14; 14, n. 7. 

two-column, pp. 13; 14. 

vellum, pp. 6, n. 12, 13, 14, 16; 7, n. 20, 21. 

Vulgate, a, p. 43. 
Codex Sinaiticus, pp. 7, n. 19; 13; 16, n. 10. 
Codex Vaticanus, pp. 13; 16, n. 10. 
Colophon, pp. 17; 18; 19; 

contents of, pp. 17; 18; 20. 
Column or columns, pp. 12; 13; 14; 15; 15, n. 2, 
5, 7, 8; 16; 44; 

in Greek codices, p. 13, n. 1. 

vertical, pp. 1 1 f . 
Constantinople, p. 19. 
Coptic, p. 23. 
Copts, p. 9. 
Copyist or copyists, pp. 17; 18; 46. See also 

Scribe or scribes. 
Cotton, p. 7. 

Crucifixion, the, picture of, p. 22. 
Cyril of Scythopolis, p. 19. 

3 , forms of, pp. 31; 32. 
Damascus, pp. 22; 45. 
Date, pp. 17; 18; 19; 20. 
Dating, pp. 18-20. 
Decalogue, the, p. 25, n. 3. 
Dionysius Exiguus, p. 19. 

East, the Near, pp. 6; 7; 9. 
Edessa, pp. 11, n. 1; 13; 22; 25; 26; 27, n. 14. 
EgyP 1 * PP- 3; 25, n. 3; 44. 
Egyptians, p. 11. 
Ephesus, Council of, p. 28. 

Epigraphy, p. 25. See also Inscription or inscrip- 
tions. 
Epithets, depreciatory, p. 17. 
Era, 

Christian, p. 19. 

Mohammedan, p. 19. 

Mundane, p. 19. 

of Alexander, p. 18. 

of Antioch, p. 18. 

of Apamea, p. 18. 

of Bostra, p. 18. 

of the Greeks, p. 18. 

Seleucid, pp. 18; 19. 
Estrangela, pp. 24; 25; 27; 29; 29, n. 28; 31; 
32; 33; 36; 37; 4 6 ; 47; 

derivation of, p. 24, n. 2. 

Nestorian, p. 28. 



tradition, p. 28. 

writing, see Writing, Estrangeld. 
Eumenes II, p. 3. 
Europe, Western, p. 19. 
Exodus 2:22, p. 43, n. 4. 

Ferrous compounds, p. 10. 

Ferrous sulphate, pp. 10; 11. 

Flax, p. 7. 

Forms of certain letters, observations on the, pp. 

30-40. 
Four evangelists, the, pictures of, p. 21; 21, n. 6. 
Four Gospels, pp. 21; 28; 44. 

Gallapples, p. 10. 

Gallnuts, p. 10. 

Garshun, p. 43, n. 4. 

Garshuni, pp. 42; 43. 

Gathering, p. 22. See also Quire or quires. 

Gerisoni, p. 43. 

Gershun, pp. 42, n. 1; 43. 

Gershuni, pp. 42-44; 42, n. 1; 43. 

Gharib el-Hadith, p. 6. 

Gold ornamentation, p. 10; 10, n. 1. 

Greece, pp. 7; 15, n. 8; 20. 

Greek, pp. 23; 44. 

Greek Patriarchal Library in Jerusalem, pp. 7, 

n. 20, 21; 44, n. 12. 
Greeks, pp. 9; 16; 16, n. 8, 9; 28; 29, n. 28; 

under Arab rule, p. 7. 
gum, p. 11. 
gum arabic, pp. 10; 11. 

CO, forms of, p. 32. 

Hand or hands, p. 26. See also Handwriting, 
Script, and Writing. 

book, p. 27. 

Estrangela, pp. 22; 25; 25, n. 3; 26; 28; 29, 
n. 28; 30; 31; 37; 46. 

Melkite, pp. 33; 47. 

minuscule, pp. 26; 27. 

Palestinian, pp. 30; 34. 

Serta, pp. 38; 39. 

Syriac, p. 24. 
Handwriting, pp. 28; 45. See also Hand or 
hands, Script, and Writing. 

Armenian, p. 44. 

Estrangela, pp. 25; 26; 27. 

periods in the history of Syriac, pp. 44-47. 

Syriac, pp. 39; 42. 

uncial, p. 29, n. 28. 
Harclean version, 

of John, p. 27. 

of the Four Gospels, p. 21. 
Harrowing of Hell, the, picture of, p. 22. 
Hebrews, p. 9. 



260 INDEXES 



INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION 



261 



Hemp, p. 7. 

Heraclius, Emperor, p. 45. 
Hijrah, the, p. 19. 
Himyarites, Book of the, pp. 6 £. 
Hippolytus of Rome, p. 19. 
Horns, p. 42, n. 1. 

O, forms of, p. 33. 

India, p. 43. 

Indiction, pp. 19; 20, n. 14. 

Ink, pp. 10 f.; 16; 

making of, pp. 10; 11. 

recipes for preparing, p. 10. 

used for ruling, p. 16; 16, n. 13. 
Inscription or inscriptions, pp. 11; 24, n. 1; 25; 
43; 44. See also Epigraphy. 

Palmyrene, pp. 12, n. 2; 24; 25; 29; 30. 

Syriac, p. 11, n. 1. 
Isaac the Great, p. 9. 
Islam, pp. 19; 45. 
Islamic civilization, p. 7. 

Jacob, a scribe, p. 25. 

Jacob of Edessa, p. 27, n. 14. 

Jacobite, p. 27. 

Jacobites, pp. 12; 27, n. 13; 28; 41. 

Jebel Shb&t, p. 12, n. 1. 

Jeremiah 8:8, p. 9, n. 7. 

Jerome, Ep. VII, p. 3, n. 1. 

Jerusalem, pp. 7, n. 20, 21; 22; 27; 42, n. 1; 

44, n. 12. 
John, Bishop of Qartamin, p. 26; 26, n. 11. 
John, Gospel of, p. 27. 
John, the evangelist, p. 21; 21, n. 6. 
3 John 13, p. 9, n. 8. 
Judaism, p. 45. 

v\ , p. 38. 

V, p. 38. 
Karshun, p. 43. 
Karshunl, pp. 42; 43. 

V pp. 38 f. 

)J , p. 40. 

^\S , p. 40. 

Lampblack, p. 11. 
Language, 

Arabic, p. 43. 

foreign, p. 43. 
Last Supper, the, picture of, p. 22. 
Lead, pp. 14; 15; 15, n. 2, 5, 7, 8. 
Lead disk, pp. 12; 15; 16, n. 8. 
Leaf or leaves, pp. 23; 24. 
Lection, end of a, p. 42. 



Lectionary, 

Jacobite, p. 22. 

Palestinian of the Gospels, p. 30. 
Letters, pp. 45; 46; 47. See also Characters. 

Arabic, p. 23. 

Armenian, p. 44. 

dlS^S^^D, p. 41. 

Coptic, p. 23. 

Estranged, p. 27; 

earliest examples of, p. 25. 

Greek, pp. 23; 43; 44. 

Palmyrene, p. 24, n. x. 

Serta, p. 30. 

Syriac, pp. 23; 42; 43. 
Limewater, p. 4. 

Line or lines, pp. 13; 14; 15; 15, n. 7; 16. 
Linea Occultans, p. 41; 41, n. 18; 

earliest example of, p. 41. 
Linen, p. 7. 

Loan-words, Greek, p. 35. 
Luke, Gospel of, p. 22. 
Luke, the evangelist, pp. 21; 21, n. 6; 2a. 

2tt , forms of, pp. 33 f. 
7a, p. 39. 
)0, p. 39- 
Mabbug, p. 13. 

Maccabean period, p. 25, n. 3. 
3 Maccabees 4:20, p. 9, n. 8. 
Malabar coast, p. 43. 
Malayalam, p. 43. 
Malkites, see Melkites. 

Manuscript or manuscripts, pp. 12; 17; 21; 24; 
25; 46; 47. See also Codex or codices. 

ancient, p. 26. 

dated, p. 26. 

dated Estrangela, p. 26. 

dated Palestinian, p. 47. 

dating of, p. 31. 

earliest, pp. 36; 38; 42. 

earliest dated Nestorian, p. 28. 

earliest dated paper, p. 6. 

earliest dated Syriac, p. 13. 

earliest Estrangeli, p. 39. 

earliest extant, p. 25. 

earliest ruled with a blunt point, p. 16, n. 11. 

earliest ruled with a sharp point, p. 16, n. 9. 

earliest ruled with ink, p. 16, n. 13. 

earliest Serta, pp. 35; 37. 

earliest Syriac, pp. 4; 40. 

earliest vellum of the Bible, p. 16, n. 10. 

early, p. 11. 

Estrangela, pp. 14; 28; 41. 

Estrangela, classes of, p. 44. 

Graeco-Turkish of the Four Gospels, p. 44. 

Greek, pp. 16, n. 8; 27. 



latest Estrangela, pp. 32; 39. 

latest Syriac, p. 40. 

Melkite, pp. 10, n. 1; 14, n. 8; 29; 31; 54; 
36; 37; 4i. 

Nestorian, pp. 28; 30; 32; 39; 40; 41. 

oldest Estrangela, p. 25. 

oldest Melkite, p. 29. 

oldest Serta, pp. 32; 33; 36. 

Palestinian, p. 41. 

paper, p. 16. 

ruled with a blunt point, p. 16, n. 12. 

Serta, pp. 40; 41. 

Serta, classes of, p. 46. 

Syriac, pp. 10; 13; 14; 15; 18; 19; 20; 22; 
23; 24, n. 5; 40; 42, n. 1. 

vellum, p. 16. 

without ruling, p. 17, n. 15. 
Mar Elias, 

Convent or Laura of, p. 29. 
Marga, p. 9. 

Margin or margins, pp. 14; 15; 15, n. 2. 
Mary Magdalene, picture of, p. 22. 
Mary, the other, picture of, p. 22. 
Masorah, 

on the Fourth Gospel, p. 27. 
Melkites, pp. 19; 28; 29; 31; 35; 37; 38; 39. 
Mesopotamia, pp. 9; 19; 20; 26; 45. 
Midian, p. 43. 
Miniatures, pp. 20-22; 
art of painting, p. 20. 

Byzantine, p. 9, n. 8. 
earliest Syrian, p. 20. 

Syrian, p. 22, n. 12. 
Mohammed, p. 6. 
Monophysite, p. 27, n. 14. 

Morgan Library in New York, p. 22; 22, n. 8. 
Moses, p. 43. 
Moslem world, p. 45. 
Moslems, p. 45. 

Mount Sinai, pp. 7, n. 20, 21; 30. 
Mu'awiya I, p. 45. 

^*^f P- 39- 
V P. 39- 

Nash Papyrus, p. 25, n. 3. 
Nestorians, pp. 12; 27, n. 13; 28; 33; 34; 35; 

375 38; 39; 41; 46. 
Nestorius, p. 28. 
Nimrud Dagh, p. 11, n. 1. 
Nitria, desert of, pp. 10; 11. 
Numeral or numerals, pp. 17; 17, n. 1; 23. 
nutgalls, pp. 10; 11. 

Oil, p. 11. 

Old Palestinian, p. 29. 

'Omar, p. 45. 



Omayyad dynasty, p. 45. 

Opening, p. 24. 

Orontes, p. 18. 

'Othman, p. 45. 

Oxidation, atmospheric, p. 10. 

Go , forms of, p. 34. 
^> P- 39. 

1 or £, p. 35. 
Painters, 

Greek, p. 20. 

Persian, p. 20. 
Palaeography, p. 25. 
Palestine, pp. 29; 45. 
Palestinian, p. 38. 
Palimpsest or palimpsests, pp. 4; 5; 30; 

double, p. 4, n. 5. 

earliest dated Syriac, p. 5. 

Greek, p. 5, n. 10. 
Palmyra, pp. 12, n. 2; 24, n. 1. 
Palmyrene, p. 24. 
Palmyrenes, p. 12. 

Paper, pp. 3; 5; 6; 7; 10; 11; 12; 16; 16, n. 9; 
23; 24; 

discovery of the art of manufacturing, pp. 

introduced into Syria, p. 6. 

manufacture of, p. 7. 

Occidental, p. 8. 

Oriental, p. 8. 
Paper mulberry, p. 7. 
Papyrus or papyri, pp. 3; 12; 13; 23; 24; 

Graeco-Armenian, p. 44, 

non-literary, p. 27. 
Pen or pens, pp. 8 f.; 24; 25; 

earliest reference to a quill pen, p. 8. 

earliest reference to a reed pen, pp. 8 f . 

latest mention of a quill pen, p. 8. 

quill, pp. 8; 8, n. 1, 2; 9. 

reed, pp. 8; 8, n. 2; 9; 9, n. 4, 8, 9, 12. 

reed pens adopted by the Syrians, p. 9, n. 1 1. 

used by Greek scribes, p. 9, n. 13. 
Pentecost, picture of, p. 22. 
Pergamum, p. 3. 
Persia, pp. 18; 20. 
Persians, p. 45. 
Peshitta text, 

of Exodus, p. 43, n. 4. ^ 

of Isaiah, p. 5. 
Peshitta version, 

of Luke, p. 22. 

of the Four Gospels, pp. 21; 28. 
Pigments, p. 10. 






262 INDEXES 



Plato, Phaedrus 276C, p. 9, n. 8. 
Pliny, N. H. XIII, 11, 70, p. 3, n. 1. 
Point or points, 

blunt, pp. 14; 16; 16, n. 12. 

diacritical, p. 12. 

inferior, p. 41. 

over the letter &\ , p. 41. 

plural, p. 40. See also Seyame. 

sharp, pp. 14; 16; 16, n. 9, 10. 

single, pp. 40; 41, n. 9; 42. 

superior, pp. 40; 41. 
Pointed instrument, p. 12. 
Pollux, Onom. X, 61, p. 9, n . 8. 
Proper names, Greek, p. 35. 
Psalm 45:2, p. 9, n. 7. 
Ptolemy, p. 3. 
Pumice stone, p. 4. 
Punctuation, p. 42; 

circles used as marks of, p. 42. 

in Greek codices, p. 42, n. 7. 

marks of, p. 42. 

points of, p. 42. 

sign of, p. 42. 

-a , forms of, p. 35. 
Qartamin, p. 26. 

Quire or quires, pp. 22-24; 24, n. 5. See also 
Gathering. 

in Greek codices, p. 24, n. 5. 

single, p. 22. 

two-leaf, p. 23. 
Qushshaya, p. 41; 41, n . 11, 12; 

earliest example of, p. 41. 

^ , forms of, p. 36. 

Rabban Cyriacus, p. 9. 

Rabbula, p. 20. 

Rabbula Gospels, pp. 20; 21, n. 6. 

Rabbula Manuscript, p. 21, n. 6. 

Reagent, p. 5. 

Reed, p. 9; 

of the Spirit, p. 9. 
Renaissance in the art of writing, p. 26. 
Roll or rolls, pp. 3; 13; 

papyrus, p. 13. 

vellum, p. 13. 
Rukkaka, p. 41; 41, n . 12; 

earliest example of, p. 41. 
Ruler, pp. 15; 16, n. 8. 
Ruling, pp. 14-17; 15, n. 2. 
Running title, p. 23. 

X , forms of, pp. 36 f. 
Samarkand, p. 6. 

Scribe or scribes, pp. 17; 18; 25; 26; 27; 44; 46. 
See also Copyist or copyists. 



Edessene, p. 29, n. 28. 

Estrangela, p. 33. 

Greek, pp. 7; 9, n . i 3; n, n . 5. 

Melkite, pp. 14; 32; 38. 

Nestorian, pp. 19; 28; 31; 36; 47. 

Serta, pp. 39; 40. 

Syrian, pp. 5; 8; 8, n. 2; 10; 15; 20; 24. 
Script, pp. 28; 47. See also Hand or hands, 
Handwriting, and Writing. 

common or current, p. 27. 

cursive, pp. 24; 25; 29; 30. 

Estrangela, pp. 25; 25, n. 3; 26; 30; 31; 33: 
38; 39; 46. 

Greek, p. 44. 

Melkite, pp. 29; 31; 47. 

minuscule, p. 27. 

Old Palestinian, p. 29. 

Palestinian, pp. 14; 29; 29, n. 28; 30; 31; 
32; 33; 34; 355 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42. 

Palmyrene cursive, p. 25, n. 3. 

Serta, pp. 26; 27; 27, n. 14; 28; 30; 35; 40; 
t 46; 47- 

simple, p. 27. 

Syro-Palestinian, p. 29. 

Turkish, p. 44. 
Scroll, p. 21, n. 6. 
Seleucus I, p. 18. 
Serta, pp. 27; 31; 32; 35; 37; 46. 
Seyame, p. 40; 40, n. 3. See also Point or 

points, plural. 
Shema', the, p. 25, n. 3. 
Starch size, p. 8. 
St. Catharine's Convent at Mount Sinai, p. 7, 

n. 20, 21. 
Syria, pp. 6; 18; 19; 26; 42; 45. 
Syriac, pp. 24; 35; 42. 
Syrians, pp. 6; 8; 9; 11; 12; 16; 20; 43. 
Syrian Orthodox, p. 27, n. 13. 
Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark in Jeru- 
salem, pp. 22, n. 7; 42, n. 1. 
Syro-Palestinian, p. 29. 

C\ , forms of, pp. 37 f. 
Tannin, pp. 10; 11. 
Text or texts, 

Arabic, pp. 5; 42. 

Coptic, p. 5. 

earliest Syriac on paper, p. 7. 

Estrangela, pp. 26; 34; 35; 36. 

Greek, pp. 5; 7; 44 . 

Latin, pp. 5; 43. 

Melkite, pp. 33; 35; 39; 40 . 

Nestorian, pp. 32; 34; 35; 38; 39; 46. 

oldest Serta, p. 39. 

Palestinian, p. 30, n. 32. 

Peshitta of Exodus, p. 43, n. 4. 



INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION 



263 



Peshitta of Isaiah, p. 5. 

Serta, pp. 33; 36; 39; 40; 41. 

Syriac, pp. 5; 23. 

Turkish, p. 44. 
Themistius, Orat. XV, 190b, p. 9, n. 8. 
Thomas of Marga, p. 9. 
Timothy Aelurus, p. 7. 
Transfiguration, the, picture of, p. 22. 
Tur-'Abdin, pp. 6, n. 14; 26; 27; 46. 
Turkestan, p. 6. 

Ultra-violet lamp, p. 5. 
Ultra-violet rays, p. 5. 

Varro, p. 3. 

Vellum, pp. 3; 4; 5; 6; 8; 10; 11; 12; 13; 16; 
16, n. 9; 23; 24; 

Coptic recipe for making, pp. 4, n. 3; 9, n. 9. 

invention of, p. 3. 
Vinegar, pp. 10; 11. 
Vitriol, 

green, pp. 10; 11. 

water of, p. 10. 
Vowel points, 

Nestorian, p. 46. See also Vowels, Nestorian. 
Vowels, 

Nestorian, p. 28. See also Vowel points, 
Nestorian. 



Water, pp. 10; 11. 
West, the, p. 19. 
Wine, pp. 10; 11. 
Words, 

Greek, p. 44. 

Latin, p. 43. 
Writing, pp. 45; 46; 47. See also Hand or 
hands, Handwriting, and Script. 

cipher or cryptic, p. 17. 

cursive, p. 28. 

Estrangela, pp. 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 46; 47. 

lower in palimpsests, pp. 4; 5. 

mode of among the Jacobites, p. 12. 

Nestorian, pp. 28; 29; 38. 

Nestorian Estrangela, p. 30. 

Nestorian Serta, pp. 30 f. 

Palestinian, pp. 30; 31; 47. 

Palmyrene, p. 24, n. 1. 

Serta, pp. 31; 32; 33; 34; 38; 47. 

styles of, pp. 24-30. 

Syriac, p. 24, n. 1. 

upper in palimpsests, pp. 4; 5. 

vertical, pp. 1 1 f . 
Writing materials, pp. 3-8. 

Zebed, p. 12, n. 1. 
Zipporah, p. 43. 
Zoroastrianism, p. 45. 



m 

INDEX OF BIBLICAL BOOKS AND LECTIONARIES 



A. Old Testament: 
Pentateuch, the, p. 123. 
Genesis, p. 55. 
Exodus, pp. $$, 96. 
Numbers, p. 55. 
Deuteronomy, p. 55. 
Joshua, p. 87. 

I Kings, p. 100. 

Ezra, p. 107. 

Nehemiah, p. 107. 

Psalms, the, pp. 121, 143, 165. 

Isaiah, p. 53. 

Ezekiel, pp. 70, 101 (chaps. 26-48). 

Daniel, pp. 65, 98. 

B. New Testament: 

Four Gospels, the, pp. 71, 85, 97, 103, 105, 
114 (extracts), 120, 124, 125, 127, 135, 
136, 137, 138, 139, 153, 179, 180, 188, 
205, 211, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 221, 
223, 231. 

Luke, p. 64. 

John, pp. 64, 146, 202. 



Acts, pp. 139, 140, 180, 197, 214, 216, 218, 

219, 221, 231. 
Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews), the, 

pp. 67, 93, 94, 114 (extracts), 139, 140, 

148 (extracts), 180, 197, 214, 216, 218, 

219, 221, 231. 
Catholic Epistles (both the major and the 

minor), the, pp. 149, 180. 
James, I Peter, and I John, pp. 139, 140, 197, 

214, 216, 218, 219, 221, 231. 
James, p. 114 (extracts). 

C. Lectionaries : 

O. T., N. T., and Apocrypha, p. 115. 

O. T. and N. T., pp. 116, 128, 215. 

Four Gospels, the, pp. 131, 132, 133, 134, 

141, 202, 220, 222, 225, 230, 233, 234, 

235, 242, 249, 250, 251. 
Acts, p. 172. 
Pauline Epistles (including Heberws), the, 

pp. 172, 226. 
A Jacobite Lectionary, p. 144. 



264 



IV 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 



Abba, the disciple of Ephraem Syrus: 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Abraham r^AlAl&l : 

Three Discussions, p. 106. 

Three Short Selections, pp. 149, 158. 
Addai: 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Ammonius : 

Fifteen Letters, p. 106. 
Amphilochius of Iconium: 

A Discourse on John XIV, 28, p. 99. 

A Homily on Basil of Caesarea, p. 104. 
1 Anan-Isho' : 

A Collection of Apophthegmata Patrum, p. 166. 
Anthimus: 

A Letter, p. 164. 
Anthony: 

A Letter, p. no. 
Aphraates: 

Homilies I-X, p. $7. 

Homilies XIII-XXII, p. 60. 
Athanasius: 

A Discourse on Virginity, p. 157. 

A Letter to the Virgins Who went and prayed 
in Jerusalem and returned, p. 153. 

Four Discourses, Five Letters, and an Exposi- 
tion, p. 99. 

On the Incarnation, p. 78. 

The History of Anthony, pp. 104, 114, 164. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Basil: 

A Discourse concerning Substance and Hypo- 
stasis, p. 99. 

A Discourse on Lent, p. 170. 

A Discourse on the Observance of the Com- 
mands of the Gospel, p. 158. 

A Discourse on the Refutation of (Heretical) 
Opinions, p. 99. 

A Homily on Deuteronomy XV, 9, p. 72. 

A Letter to the Recluses, p. 149. 

An Extract from the Commentary on the 
Psalms, p. 148. 

An Extract from the Regulae brevius trac- 
tatae, p. 149. 



Extracts from an Episde on the Ascetic Life, 

p. 149. 
Four Short Extracts, p. 158. 
On the Holy Spirit, p. 58. 
Hepl N^re/as, p. 163. 
Testimonies from Writings read at the Council 

of Ephesus, p. 72. 
The First Discourse on Lent, p. 170. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Clement of Rome: 

Epistles I and II, p. 180. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Cosmas the Priest: 

An Episde to Simeon Stylites, p. 56. 
Cyriacus of Amida: 

An Account of the Translation of the Bones 
of Jacob Baradaeus from the Convent of 



t 



->-£&- 



to that of Pesilta, p. 104. 



Cyril of Alexandria: 

An Extract, p. 148. 

Nine Discourses, p. 170. 

On Worship in Spirit and in Truth (Books 
IX-XII), p. 74. 

The Thesaurus concerning the Holy and Con- 
substantial Trinity (Assertiones I-XX), p. 90. 

Two Extracts, p. 149. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 

Damasus of Rome: 

A Synodal Letter, p. 99. 
Daniel of Salah: 

A Commentary on the Psalms, Vol. II, p. 176. 
Diocles : 

A History of Rome (a fragment), p. 117. 
Dionysius: 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Dionysius bar Salibi: 

A Commentary on the Gospels, pp. 181, 199. 

Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 
Dionysius the Areopagite, see Ps.-Dionysius the 

Areopagite. 
Dioscorus the Monk: 

An Admonition before Receiving the Eucharist, 
p. 148. 



265 



266 



INDEXES 



Elias (of Dara ?) : 

The Life of John, Bishop of Telia, p. 104. 

Ephraem Syrus: 

A Discourse for Palm Sunday, p. 170. 

A Discourse on Elijah and the Widow of 

Zarepath, p. 153. 
A Discourse on the Nativity, p. 99. 
A Discourse on the Sinful Woman, p. 153. 
A Discourse on Two Commemorations, p. 114. 
A Discourse on Wizards and Charmers and 

Soothsayers, and on the End and Consum- 
mation, p. 157. 
A Funeral Discourse, p. 148. 
A Hymn for the Dead, p. 121. 
A Letter to the Monks Who dwelt in the 

Mountains, p. 149. 
A Metrical Discourse, p. 121. 
A Metrical Discourse on the Composition of 

Man, p. 126. 
Burial Offices, p. 150. 
Choral Services, p. 53. 
Eighty-seven Hymns on the Faith, p. 62. 
Fifteen Hymns on Paradise, pp. 61, 62, 73. 
Fifteen Hymns on the Nativity, p. 73. 
Fifty-one Hymns on Virginity, p. 62. 
Fifty-six Hymns against Heresies, p. 62. 
Fifty-two Hymns on the Church, p. 62. 
Four Hymns on Julian the Apostate, p. 61. 
Funeral Sermons, p. 159. 
Seblatha of the Madrashe, p. 208. 
Selections from the Book of Sentences, p. 158. 
Six Hymns on Adam and Eve, p. 61. 
Six Hymns on the Crucifixion, p. 61. 
Sixteen Hymns on the Nativity, p. 61. 
Ten Hymns on Lent, p. 61. 
The Abodes of Paradise (a madrasha), p. 97. 
The Testament (abridged), p. 148. 
Three Hymns on Longsuffering, Freewill, 

Grace, and Justice, p. 61. 
Three Hymns on Palm Sunday, p. 61. 
Twenty-three Hymns on Various Subjects, 

p. 61. 
Two Discourses (extracts), p. 149. 
Two Hymns on the Lord's Supper, p. 61. 
Two Hymns on the Tables of the Law, p. 61. 
Works, p. 149. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 16-1. 
Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 

Epiphanius : 

On the Names of the Points, p. 126. 

On Prophecy, p. 126. 

On Weights, p. 126. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Eusebius: 

A Eulogy of the Confessors' Virtue, p. 52. 



Four Extracts from the Ecclesiastical History, 

p. 157. 
On the Confessors of Palestine, p. 52. 
On the Theophany, p. 52. 
The Ecclesiastical History, p. 54. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Evagrius: 

A Dialogue of a Teacher and a Pupil, p. 149. 

A Discourse addressed to Eulogius, p. 158. 

A Doctrinal Treatise, p. 158. 

A Hortatory Discourse, p. 158. 

A Treatise on Foul Thoughts (a fragment), 

p. 155. 
A Treatise on the Distinction of the Passions, 

p. 149. 
An Admonition, p. 149. 
Five Selections, p. 148. 
Four Selections, p. 157. 
Fourteen Selections, p. 122. 
Thirteen Tracts and Exhortations on Various 

Subjects, p. 158. 
Three Discourses, p. 149. 
Twenty-five Discourses and Exhortations, p. 

no. 
Two Letters, p. 149. 
Two Tracts, p. no. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 

Felix of Rome: 

A Letter in Condemnation of Peter the Fuller, 
Bishop of Antioch, p. 99. 

Gabriel of Mosul: 

A Poem on God, the Creation of the World, 
the Incarnation, etc., p. 228. 
Galen : 

Works, p. 131. 
George, Bishop of the Arabs: 

A Chapter on the Eclipse of the Sun, p. 191 GO. 
A Discourse on the Consecration of die Chrism, 
p. 170. 
George of Scythopolis: 

A Preface to Ps.-Dionysius (an extract), pp. 
in, 117. 

Gesius: 

A Commentary on the Works of Galen, p. 131. 
Gregory bar Hebraeus: 

A Metrical Discourse arranged in Distichs on 
Divine Things and on the Perfection of 
the Life of Wise Ascetics, p. 228. 
Another Poem, p. 228. 
Ethics, pp. 192, 193. 

Extracts on Certain Astronomical Matters, p. 
191. 






INDEX OF AUTHORS 






267 



The Book of Directions (or Nomocanon), p. 

196. 
The Book of Hierotheus, p. 195. 
The Book of the Pupils of the Eyes, p. 195. 
The Book of Rays, p. 195. 
The Book of the Speech of Wisdom, p. 195. 
The Business of Businesses, p. 189. 
The Metrical Grammar, p. 201. 
The Storehouse of Secrets, p. 201. 
Gregory Nazianzen: 

A Discourse for New Sunday, p. 170. 

A Discourse on Pentecost, p. 170. 

A Discourse on the Epiphany, p. 170. 

A Discourse on the Passover and on Slowness, 

p. 170. 
A Letter to a Man Who was Familiar with 

Pressing Trials, p. 158. 
Thirty Discourses, pp. 102, 118, 147, 152. 
Two Extracts, p. 122. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Gregory of Nyssa: 

On the Death of Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, 

p. 170. 
The Great Catechetical Discourse, p. 81. 
The Life of Gregory Thaumaturgus, p. 104. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 
Gregory Thaumaturgus: 

A Discourse addressed to Philagrius on the 

Consubstantiality of the Son, p. 81. 
Testimonies from Writings read at the Council 

of Ephesus, p. 72. 
The Faith in Parts, p. 81. 
Gregory the Monk: 
An Extract, p. 148. 

Hesychius : 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Hieronymus : 

The History of Paul of the Thebaid, p. 164. 
Hippoly tus : 

On the Feast of the Epiphany, p. 170. 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Irenaeus: 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Isa bar Mark, see Jacob bar Shakko. 
Isaac of Antioch: 

A Funeral Discourse on Priests and Deacons, 

P- 153- 
A Metrical Discourse, p. 148. 
Burial Offices, p. 150. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Isaac of Nineveh: 

An Extract, p. 195. 



Isaiah of Scete: 

An Extract, pp. 122, 149. 

Eleven Tracts, p. 158. 

Five Selections, p. 148. 

Fragments, p. 154. 

Ten Discourses, p. 106. 
Isaiah the Abbot, see Isaiah of Scete. 
Isaiah the Hermit, see Isaiah of Scete. 
Isaiah the Younger: 

A Collection of Extracts from the Scriptures, 
p. 89. 

A Lament, p. 89. 

A Letter, p. 89. 

Nineteen Discourses, p. 89. 

Three Collections of Precepts, p. 89. 

Three Collections of Sayings, p. 89. 
Isho'dadh: 

An Explanation of Difficult Passages in the 
Holy Scriptures, p. 227. 
Isidore of Pelusium: 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Jacob, see Dionysius bar Salihi. 
Jacob bar Shakko: 

Dialogues on Grammar, Rhetoric, and Poetry, 
p. 210. 
Jacob of Batnae, see Jacob of Serug. 
Jacob of Edessa: 

A Discourse on the Consecration of the Chrism, 
p. 170. 

A Letter to George of Seriig, p. 126. 

On the Points, p. 126. 

The Book of the Vowel Points and Readings 
of the Old and the New Testament accord- 
ing to the Qarqaphensian Tradition, p. 126. 
Jacob of Serug: 

A Discourse on Pride, p. 153. 

A Discourse on the Ten Virgins, p. 153. 

A Metrical Discourse on the Dead, p. 148. 

A Metrical Discourse on the Prophet Jonah, 
p. 149. 

A Prose Discourse, p. no. 

Admonitory and Penitential Hymns, p. 114. 

Burial Offices, p. 150. 

Choral Services, p. 53. 

Eight Metrical Discourses, p. 79. 

Fifty-one Discourses, p. 170. 

Funeral Sermons, p. 159. 

Metrical Discourses, p. 119. 

Six Metrical Discourses, p. 155. 

Thirty-four Letters and Six Prose Discourses, 
p. 88. 

Three Discourses, p. 153. 

Three Metrical Discourses and a Funeral 
Sermon, p. 72. 






268 



INDEXES 



Two Canticles on Penitence, p. 149- 

Two Letters, p. 149* 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 
Jacobite Fathers: 

An Octoechus, p. 169. 
John, Abbot of the Convent of Beth-Aphtunaya: 

The Life of Severus, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 
104. 
John bar Andrew, Bishop of Tur-'Abdin: 

Two Metrical Discourses, p. 195. 
John bar Aphtunaya: 

Hymns, pp. 160, 174. 

John Chrysostom: 

A Commentary on I Corinthians (Homilies 

XXXIV-XLIV), p. 84. 
A Commentary on Ephesians (Homilies I- 

XXIV), p. 92. 
A Commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew 

(Homilies I-XVI), p. 75- 
A Commentary on I and II Thessalonians 

(Homilies I-V), p. 86. 
A Consolatory Discourse for the Dead, p. 149. 
A Discourse on Repentance, p. 121. 
A Discourse on Virginity and Repentance and 

Exhortation, p. 158. 
A Discourse on Wealth and Poverty, p. 81. 
A Prayer, p. 81. 
An Extract on not Receiving the Eucharist 

Carelessly, p. 148. 
Nine Extracts, p. 149. 
Testimonies from Writings read at the Council 

of Ephesus, p. 72. 
The Second Epistle to Theodore and Three 

Discourses on the Prodigal Son, p. 72. 
Thirty-one Discourses, p. 170. 
Three Extracts, p. 122. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 

John Climacus: 

A Reply to a Letter of John, Abbot of Raithu, 

p. 113, 
Selections from the Scala Paradisi (mentioned 
in the subscription to a manuscript), p. 162. 
The Liber ad Pastorem, p. 113. 
The Scala Paradisi, p. 113- 
John of Antioch: 

Plerophoriae, or Testimonies and Revelations 
from God to the Saints concerning the 
Heresy of the Diphysites and the Trans- 
gression at Chalcedon, p. 157. 
John of Asia, see John of Ephesus. 
John of Constantinople: 

A Discourse on Matthew XXVI, 39, p. 99- 

John of Dara: 

Selections from the Book on the Soul, p. 186 



John of Egypt, see John of Lycopolis. 
John of Ephesus: 

Eight Chapters on Various Subjects, p. 95. 
Fifty-one Lives of Eastern Saints (men and 

women), p. 95. 
The Life of Jacob Baradaeus, p. 104. 
Thirteen Extracts from the Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, p. 157. 
Thirteen Lives of Holy Men and Women, 

p. 157. 
Two Accounts of Monasteries, p. 95. 
John of Lycopolis: 

A Dialogue of a Teacher and His Pupil, p. 

158. 
A Discourse and a Letter, p. 148. 
A Discourse on Matthew V, 4, p. 82. 
A Discourse on Purity of Soul, p. 158. 
A Discourse on the Dispensations of God, p. 

82. 
A Discourse shewing how a Man may be with- 
out Pride and Ostentation and Pomp and 
the Impulses of Arrogance, p. 82. 
A Letter to a Convent of His Friends on the 

Maintenance of Love, p. 82. 
A Letter to a Convent of Recluses on the 
Peace of the Creation from the Offences 
Which were in It, p. 82. 
A Letter to Eutropius and Eusebius on the 

Spiritual Life, p. 82. 
A Letter to Theodulus, p. 82. 
Another Discourse on the Same Subject (i. e. 
how a man may be without pride, etc.), 
p. 82. 
Eight Discourses, p. 149. 
Four Discourses on the Soul and on the Dis- 
tinction of the Passions of Men, p. 82. 
Letters, Discourses, and a Dialogue, p. 155. 
Letters, Discourses, and Doctrinal Tracts, p. 114. 
Sixteen Discourses, Exhortations, Letters, etc., 

p. 108. 
The End of an Extract, p. 162. 
The First Letter to Eutropius and Eusebius, 

p. no. 
Three Letters, p. 158. 
Two Doctrinal Treatises, p. 158. 
Two Letters, p. no. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
John, Patriarch of Antioch: 

A Discourse on the Consecration of the Chrism, 
p. 170. 
John Philoponus: 

A Discourse addressed to the Priest Sergius, 

p. 112. 
A General Discourse, p. 112. 
A Short Excerpt, p. 112. 
The Diaetetes, p. 112. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



269 



John Scholasticus: 

A Preface to Ps.-Dionysius (an extract), pp. 

in, 117. 
Scholia on Ps.-Dionysius, pp. in, 117. 
John the Grammarian, see John Philoponus. 
John the Monk, see John of Lycopolis. 
Julian of Halicarnassus: 

A Letter to Severus of Antioch, p. 63. 
A Second Letter to Severus of Antioch, p. 63. 
A Third Letter to Severus of Antioch, p. 63. 
Ten Anathemas of Julian and the Refutations 
of Severus, p. 63. 
Julius of Rome: 

The Fifth Episde concerning the Union (of 
the Two Natures) in Christ and of the Body 
compounded with the Deity of God the 
Word, p. 81. 

Kamis bar Qardahe: 

Festal Canticles, p. 228. 
Short Poems, p. 228. 

Sixty-five Poems on Various Religious and 
Theological Subjects, p. 228. 

Lazarus bar Sabhetha: 

A Commentary on Holy Baptism, p. 186. 
Leo of Rome: 

An Encyclical (or Synodal) Letter (i. e. the 
Tome of Leo to Flavian), p. 99. 

Macarius of Alexandria: 

A Discourse addressed to Those Who renounce 
the World, p. 209. 

A Hortatory Discourse on the Life of Chris- 
tians, p. 158. 

An Exhortation on the Life of Christians, p. 
209. 

Eight Letters, p. 209. 

Three Discourses and Seven Letters, p. 106. 
Macarius of Egypt: 

An Exhortation, p. 122. 

An Exhortation to Those Who renounce the 
World, p. 209. 

Eight Letters, p. 209. 

Four Letters, p. 158. 

Seven Letters, p. 148. 

Three Discourses and Eight Letters, p. 106. 

Two Discourses, p. 209. 
Mar Severus, see Moses bar Kepha. 
Mark the Hermit, see Mark the Monk. 
Mark the Monk: 

Eight Discourses, p. 209. 

Six Discourses, p. 106. 

Two Discourses (mentioned in the subscrip- 
tion to a manuscript), p. 162. 



Two Discourses on Exhortation and on the 
Spiritual Law, p. 158. 
Methodius : 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Michael the Patriarch: 

Quoted in a theological work, p. 201. 
Moses bar Kepha: 

An Additional Chapter to the Book on the 
Soul, p. 186. 

A Festal Homily on the Ascension of Our 
Lord to Heaven, p. 186. 

A Festal Homily on the Consecration of the 
Holy Chrism, p. 186. 

A Festal Homily on the Mysteries of Baptism, 
p. 186. 

The Book on the Soul, p. 186. 

Thirty-seven Festal Homilies and Other Dis- 
courses, p. 187. 

Nilus the Monk: 
A Discourse, p. 149. 
Select Sayings, p. 158. 

Palladius : 

The Historia Lausiaca, pp. 68, 114, 148, 157. 
The Historia Monachorum, pp. 66, 81, 122, 

157. 

The History of John of Lycopolis, p. 114. 
The Life of Serapion, p. 148. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Pantaleon of Byzantium: 

On the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, p. 170. 
Paul of Callinicus: 

A Preface on the Manifold Meaning of Cor- 
ruption, p. 63. 
Philoxenus of Mabbiig: 

A Commentary on Matthew and on Luke 

(fragments), p. 59. 
A Letter to a Disciple, p. 158. 
A Letter to a Saintly Man Who turned from 

the Art of the Advocate to the Monastic 

Life, p. 158. 
A Letter to Patricius of Edessa, pp. no, 149, 

155, 158. 
A Letter to the Chaste Monks of Senun, p. 81. 
A Penitential Prayer, p. no. 
Five Extracts, p. 148. 
On the Trinity and the Incarnation (three 

treatises), p. yy. 
Ten Chapters against Those who divide Our 

Lord after the Indivisible Union, p. 81. 
Ten Discourses on the Thesis that One Person 

of the Holy Trinity became incarnate and 

suffered, p. 83. 
Three Short Extracts on Prayer, p. 158. 
Twelve Chapters against Those Who maintain 



270 



INDEXES 



Two Natures in Christ and One Person, 
p. 81. 
Twenty Chapters against Nestorius, p. 81. 
Two Discourses, p. no. 
Phocas of Edessa: 
Introductory Matter and Notes on Ps.-Dionysius, 
pp. in, 117. 
Porphyry: 

The Elaaywyr}, p. 224. 

Proclus of Constantinople: 

A Discourse for Good Friday and on Judas the 

Traitor, p. 170. 
A Discourse on the Birth of Our Lord in the 

Flesh, p. 99. 
A Discourse on the Faith, p. 72. 
A Discourse on the Nativity of Our Lord and 

on the Virgin, p. 99. 
Testimonies from Writings read at the Council 

of Ephesus, p. 72. 
Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite: 

On Divine Names, pp. in, 117. 
On Mystical Theology, pp. in, 117. 
On the Celestial Hierarchy, pp. in, 117. 
On the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, pp. 1 1 1 , 117. 
Ten Epistles, pp. ill, 117. 

Ptolemy: 

The Tetrabiblos, p. 191. 

Rabban Daniel: 

A Discourse on the Distinction between the 
Holy Chrism and the Holy Eucharist, pp. 
186, 187. 
Rabban Isaac: 

A Short Poem, p. 228. 

Samuel: 

The History of Bar-Sauma, p. 175. 
Samuel of Ras-'ain: 

A Discourse against the Diphysites (an ex- 
tract), p. 112. 
Severian of Gabala: 

A Discourse on the Birth of Our Lord and 

against the Heretics, p. 99. 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Severus, see Jacob bar Shakko. 
Severus, a monk of Edessa: 

A Catena Patrum on the Greater Part of the 
Old and the New Testament, p. 130. 
Severus of Antioch: 

A Book against the Appendix of Julian of Hali- 

carnassus, p. 63. 
A Discourse addressed to Julian of Halicar- 

nassus, p. 63. 
A Discourse on the Massacre of the Innocents, 
p. 170. 



A Discourse on the Trisagion, p. 149. 

A Letter to Julian of Halicarnassus, p. 63. 

A Letter to Peter, Ammonius, and Olympio- 
dorus, p. 104. 

A Letter to the Eastern Monks, p. 63. 

A Long Extract from the Philalethes, p. 63. 

An Octoechus (with other Jacobite Fathers), 
p. 169. 

Five Extracts from the Homiliae Cathedrales, 
p. 149. 

His Creed, pp. 72, 121, 148, 157. 

Hymns, pp. 160, 174. 

Letters on the Doctrine of the Trinity (ex- 
tracts), p. 118. 

On the Properties and Operations in Christ, 
p. 126. 

Ten Anathemas of Julian of Halicarnassus 
and the Refutations of Severus of Antioch, 
p. 63. 

The Homiliae Cathedrales (I-CXXV), p. 156. 

The Homiliae Cathedrales (XXXI-LIX), p. 80. 

The Homiliae Cathedrales (CI-CXXV), p. 76. 

The Signing of the Chalice with the Sign of 
the Cross, p. 178. 

Two Replies to Julian of Halicarnassus, p. 63. 
Severus Sebokt: 

A Treatise on the Astrolabe, p. 191. 

A Treatise on the Constellations and Various 
Other Subjects, p. 191. 

Chapters on Eclipses, the Horns of the Moon, 
and the Winds, p. 191. 
Simeon, Bishop of the Persian Christians: 

An Extract from a Letter or Account concern- 
ing the Himyarite Martyrs, p. 157. 
Sophronius of Jerusalem: 

A Section of a Letter to Arcadius, Bishop of 
Cyprus, p. 99. 



" The Holy Mar Jacob ": 

Funeral Sermons, p. 159. 
" The Seer of the Thebaid," see John of Lycopolis. 
Theodoret: 

A Eulogy of Julian Saba, p. 104. 

A Letter, p. 69. 
Theophilus of Alexandria: 

A Discourse on the Separation of the Soul 
from the Body, p. 148. 

A Letter to the Convent of Pachomius, p. 104. 
Theophilus the Monk: 

Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 
Thomas the Deacon: 

On the Names of the Points, p. 126. 
Timotheus: 
Quoted in a Catena Patrum, p. 161. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



271 



Timotheus Aelurus: 

A Treatise against the Council of Chalcedon 
(fragments), p. 167. 
Timothy of Alexandria: 

A Homily, p. 78. 
Titus of Bostra: 

Four Discourses against the Manichaeans, p. 
52. 

Xystus of Rome: 

Select Sayings, p. 158. 

Two Discourses (mentioned in the subscrip- 
tion to a manuscript), p. 162. 



Yeshu' bar Abraham bar Elias of Melitene: 
A Discourse on the Friday of the Crucifixion, 
p. 187. 

Zacharias Rhetor, see Zacharias Scholasticus. 

Zacharias Scholasticus : 

The Life of Abba Isaiah, p. 104. 
The Life of Severus, Patriarch of Antioch, 
p. 104. 






INDEX OF ANONYMOUS WORKS 



A Book of Jacobite Offices, p. 204. 
A Book of Offices (a fragment), p. 204. 
A Brief Explanation of Certain Critical Marks 
attached to Words in the Biblical Text, p. 217. 
A Calendar of Saints' Days for the Year, p. 235. 
A Choir Book containing the Psalms and Canticles, 

p. 143. 
A Choral Service Book, p. 129. 
A Chronicle of Events from the Creation of the 

World to the End of the Thirteenth Century, 

p. 195. 
A Collection of Canons, p. 72. 
A Collection of Choral Services and Homilies, 

p. 163. 
A Collection of Eight Anaphoras, p. 184. 
A Collection of Nine Anaphoras, p. 185. 
A Collection of Qale, p. 229. 
A Collection of Sedras and Prayers for Feasts, 

p. 178. 
A Collection of Sedras and Prayers for Other 

Occasions, p. 178. 
A Collection of Six Anaphoras, p. 194. 
A Collection of Three Anaphoras with Intro- 
ductory Prayers, Prooemia, and Sedras, p. 178. 
A Collection of Twenty-two Maronite Anaphoras, 

p. 206. 
A Commemoration of Cyril of Jerusalem, p. 239. 
A Commemoration of Sts. Peter and Paul, p. 241. 
A Commemoration of the Martyr Eutyches, a 

Disciple of John the Theologian, p. 247. 
A Commemoration of the Martyrs Meletius, 

Stephen, John, and Their Companions, p. 245. 
A Commemoration of the Prophet Amos, p. 243. 
A Commemoration of the Prophet Elisha, p. 243. 
A Commentary on Ecclesiastes XII, 1-7, p. 81. 
A Greek Canon for the Obsequies of the Mother 

of God, p. 171. 
A Hymnal for the Feast Days and Holy Days, 

p. 145. 
A Jacobite Ferial Breviary, p. 208. 
A Jacobite Missal, p. 200. 
A Letter of a Monk to a Fellow Monk, p. 158. 
A Liber Diaconalis, p. 208. 
A List of the Jewish High Priests from Aaron to 

Alexander, the Son of John Hyrcanus, p. 195. 
A List shewing under What Kings Each of the 

Holy Prophets prophesied, p. 201. 



A Martyrdom, p. 95. 

A Martyrology, p. 52. 

A Masorah, pp. 146, 217. 

A Masorah on the Gospel according to St. John, 

p. 146. 
A Menaeon, pp. 236, 239, 243, 244, 245, 246, 

247, 248. 
A Metrical Enigma, p. 195. 
A Paradise, or Treasury, of Hymns, Chants, 

Anthems, Canons, and Prayers, p. 183. 
A Selection of Passages from the Scriptures to 

illustrate the Use of the Various Signs of 

Punctuation and Accentuation, p. 217. 
A West-Syrian Masorah, p. 126. 
An Anaphora of Dioscorus, Bishop of Jeziret 

Qardu, p. 200. 
An Anaphora of Ignatius r^A^OI , p. 185. 
An Anaphora of Mar John, Patriarch of the 

Maronites, i. e. Mar Maron, p. 206. 
An Anaphora of St. James, the Brother of the 

Lord, p. 184. 
An Anaphora of Thomas of Harqel, p. 194. 
An Anonymous Discourse, p. 112. 
An anti-Nestorian Work (a fragment), p. 91. 
An Apology for the Faith, p. 97. 
An Eclogadion (Part II), p. 241. 
An Octoechus for Sundays and Ferial Days 

according to the Melkite Use, p. 240. 
An Octoechus for the Ferial Days, p. 237. 
An Office for the Feast of the Archangel Gabriel 

and a Commemoration of the Apostle Aquila, 

p. 246. 
An Office for the Festival of the Exaltation of 

the Venerable Cross, p. 238. 
An Office for the Vigil of the Epiphany and a 

Commemoration of the Prophet Malachi, p. 

244. 
An Order for Any One Saint, p. 171. 
An Order of Mar Aha the Ascetic, p. 203. 
An Order for the Consecration of a Bishop (a 

fragment), p. 109. 
An Order for the Fifth Sunday of the Resur- 
rection, p. 198. 
An Order for the Holy Prophets and Elias the 

Prophet, p. 183. 
An Order for the Martyr Cyriacus and His 

Mother Julitta, p. 204. 



272 



INDEX OF ANONYMOUS WORKS 



An Order for Two or More Persons Whose Com- 
memoration falls on the Same Day, or for 
Martyrs in General, p. 190. 

An Order of Hymns and Prayers for Abba 
Bishoi, p. 190. 

An Order of the Passion of Our Redeemer in the 
Flesh, p. 168. 

Antiphons of Every Kind, p. 119. 

Antiphons to be chanted by the Priests before 
the Administration of the Holy Eucharist, p. 
160. 

Burial Offices, p. 150. See also Funeral Services. 

Canticles from the Old and the New Testament, 
pp. 121, 165. 

De Sacro Hosannarum, i. e. the Feast of Palms, 
p. 169. 

Eight Questions of Heretics and the Defence of 

the Orthodox, p. 63. 
Extracts from the Works of Certain Fathers on 

Several Theological Subjects, p. 201. 

Festal and Other Discourses, p. 170. 

Forms of Benediction, p. 109. 

Funeral Sermons, p. 159. 

Funeral Services, p. 159. See also Burial Offices. 

Jacobite Offices, pp. 198, 204, 207. 

Lessons and Prayers, p. 142. 
Lives of the Saints, p. 182. 

M.aKapi<rnoi for the Days of the Week, p. 173. 

Nestorian Orders, p. 213. 

Offices in Commemoration of Mar Jacob 

r^zafio^tt, p. 177. 
Old Canons, p. 168. 
On Various Letters of the Alphabet and Their 

Combinations, p. 217. 
Orders and Canons, p. 229. 

Prayers at the Consecration of a Bishop, p. 1 09. 
Prayers for the Dead, p. 224. 
Ilpo<r0opt/coi ? p. 160. 

Questions of Monks addressed to Basil, p. 106. 

Select Lessons for Particular Occasions, p. 235. 
Select Narratives of Holy Women (a martyr- 

ol °gy)> P- 97- 
Select Offices for Various Occasions according to 

the Melkite Use, p. 238. 



Select Sayings of One of the Holy Fathers of 

Scete, p. 114. 
Services for Various Feasts, Saints* Days, etc., 

p. 203. 
Seven Anonymous Works, p. 126. 
Supplicatory Canons for the Ferial Days of the 

Week, p. 173. 
Supplicatory Hymns, p. 174. 
Supplicatory Hymns of the Resurrection, p. 174. 

The Acts of the Second Council of Ephesus, p. 69. 

The Apophthegmata Patrum, pp. 114, 122, 154, 
157, 166. 

The Beatitudes, pp. 121, 165. 

The Book of Susan, p. 97. 

The Book of the Candlestick, p. 207. 

The Book of the Collections of the Vowel Points 
and Readings in the Text of Scripture, p. 217. 

The Book of the Demonstrations of the Holy 
Fathers, p. 161. 

The Book of the Himyarites, p. 167. 

The Book of the Philosophers, p. 151. 

The Clementine Recognitions, p. 52. 

The Coronation of the Martyr Euphemia of 
Chalcedon, p. 248. 

The Coronation of the Martyr Jacob Who was 
cut in Pieces and the Commemoration of 
Palladius, p. 236. 

The Coronation of the Martyrs Sophia and Hei 
Three Daughters, p. 248. 

The Doctrina Apostolorum (a fragment), p. 104, 

The Gloria in Excelsis, p. 121. 

The Histories and Martyrdoms of Various Saints, 
P- 153. 

The Histories of the Egyptian Monks, p. 122. 

The History of a Nun and concerning the Dis- 
cipline for Which She was renowned, p. 157. 

The History of Abba Nathaniel, p. 114. 

The History of an Excellent Virgin, p. 157. 

The History of Antigonus and Eupraxia and 
Their Daughter Eupraxia in the Days of the 
Emperor Theodosius the Great, p. 182. 

The History of Hilaria, the Daughter of the 
Emperor Zeno, p. 157. 

The History of Jacob the Wanderer, p. 157. 

The History of Joseph the Egyptian and Eulogius 
the Greek, p. 114. 

The History of Pachomius, pp. 104, 154. 

The History of Paul the Priest and His Dispu- 
tation with Satan, p. 157. 

The History of Paul the Simple, p. 114. 

The History of Peter the Iberian, p. 104. 

The History of Serapion, p. 114. 

The History of the Blessed Onesima, the Daugh- 
ter of the Kings of Egypt, p. 157. 

The History of the Blessed Sophia and Her 
Three Virgin Daughters, p. 157. 



274 



INDEXES 



The History of the Eight Youths Who were mar- 
tyred at Ephesus, p. 157- 

The History of the Exploits of Paul the Bishop 
and of John the Priest, p. 81. 

The History of the Virgin Andromeda, p. 157- 

The Legend of the Seven Sleepers, p. 104. 

The Life of Simeon Stylites, p. 56. 

The Lives and Writings of Various Ecclesiastics, 
p. 104. 

The Lord's Prayer, p. 121. 

The Maronite Order of the Mass, p. 206. 

The Martyrdom of Cyprian the Magician and 
of Justa the Virgin, p. 97. 

The Martyrdom of Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, 
p. 104. 

The Martyrdom of Peter of Alexandria, p. 157. 



The Nicene Creed, p. 121. 

The Order of the Resurrection of Our Lord, p. 

190. 
The Traditions of the Masters of the Schools, 

p. 217. 
The Victory of the Excellent Life of Serapion, 

p. 81. 
Three Anonymous Discourses, p. 187. 
Three Discourses from the Book of Steps, p. no. 
Three Short Extracts, p. 113. 
Treasuries of Feasts and Commemorations, p. 232. 
Two Lives of Saints, p. 95. 
Two Madrashe, p. 159. 

Works on Philosophy, Grammar, and Theology, 
p. 224. 



VI 



INDEX OF SCRIBES 



Aaron, p. 149. 

Abraham, a deacon, p. 147. 

Abraham bar Joseph, a priest, p. 243. 

Abu '1-Fadl, p. 184. 

Abu '1-Faraj bar Abraham, p. 138. 

Abu '1-Khair, a priest, p. 187. 

Addai, a deacon, p. 117. 

Addai, a priest, p. 156. 

'Adi, p. 98. 

'Adlev bar Joseph, a priest, p. 185. 

Akila, a priest, p. 191. See also Yeshu' bar David. 

Aksenaya, p. 125. 

Aksenaya, a deacon, p. 102. 

Anastasius, p. 80. 

Arabi, p. 151. 

Athanasius, a bishop, p. 207. 

'Atiyeh ibn Faraj, a priest, p. 232. 

'Aziz, p. 188. 

Babai, a deacon, p. 217. 
Bacchus, pp. 143 and 144. 
Bacchus, a priest, p. 141. 
Bacchus bar Matthew, p. 142. 
Barlaha, p. 73. 
Bar-sauma, p. 113. 
Bar-sauma bar David, 
Basil bar Sa'id Saba, 
Behnam, a priest, p. 
Benjamin, p. 174. 



p. 195. 
p. 181. 
182. 



Elias el-'Abudi, a priest, p. 249. 

Elisha, p. 164. 

Emmanuel, p. 107. 

Ephraim, a stylite, pp. 118 and 152. 

Faraj, p. 221. 

Gabriel, p. 127, 

Gabriel, a priest, p. 99. 

George, p. no. 

George, p. 187. 

George, a deacon, p. in. 

Gerasimus bar Joseph, a deacon, p. 247. 

Gerasimus ibn Sim'an, p. 241. 

Habib, p. 119. 

Habib, or Agapetos, p. 109. 

Hasan bar Thomas, a priest, p. 122. 

Ignatius, p. 161. See also Mar Ignatius. 

Tsa, a priest, p. 194. 

'Isa bar Isaac, a priest, p. 228. 

Isaac, p. 54. 



Cyprian, a priest, p. 108. 

Daniel, p. 220. 
Daniel, a deacon, p. 186. 
Daniel, a priest, p. 196. 
David, a deacon, p. 126. 

Denha bar John Abu Sa'id, a deacon, who was 
also called Ma'ruf, p. 183. 

Elias, p. 66. 

Elias, p. 123. 

Elias 'Ala 'd-Din bar Saiphaya, a priest, p. 230. 

Elias bar Abraham, p. 205. 

1 See also the Index of Syriac Names and Words and the Index of Arabic Names and Words. Consult 
also the Index of Hebrew, Greek, and Coptic Names and Words. 



Jacob, 


p. 52. 




Jacob, 


p. 58. 




Jacob, 


p. 203. 




Jacob, 


a priest, p. 


171. 


Jacob, 


Bishop of India, p. 231. 


Jacob 


bar John, a 


priest, p. 215 


Jacob bar John, a 


priest, p. 246 


Job, a 


priest, p. 1 


53- 


John, 


p. 69. 




John, 


p. 86. 




John, 


p. 98. 




John, 


p. 103. 




John, 


p. 169. 




John, 


p. 190. 




John, 


p. 199. 




John, 


p. 209. 




John, 


a deacon, j 


>• 55- 


John, 


a priest, p. 


78. 


John, 


a priest, p. 


124. 



275 



276 INDEXES 



John, a priest, p. 235. 

John, an anchorite and stylite, p. 97. 

John bar Abraham, a priest, p. 245. 

John bar Bacchus, p. 189. 

John bar Joseph, p. 172. 

John bar Joseph, a monk and priest, p. 236. 

John bar Sa'id, p. 168. 

Joseph, p. 137. 

Joseph, p. 162. 

Joseph, p. 199. 

Joseph bar 'Antar, p. 237. 

Joseph bar David, a priest, p. 234. 

Julian, p. 61. 

Lazarus, pp. 96 and 98. 
Lazarus bar Saba, p. 178. 

Mafrig ibn Abu 1-Hair el-'Abudi, a priest, p. 250. 
Ma'mar, a priest, p. 240. 

Mar Ignatius, who was also called Noah, p. 204. 
Ma'ruf, a deacon, p. 183. See also Denha bar 

John Abu Sa'id. 
Moses, p. 223. 
Moses bar Jacob, p. 242. 

Noah, p. 204. See also Mar Ignatius. 

Peter, a priest, p. 251. 

Peter bar Joseph, a priest, who was also called 

Polycarp, p. 173. 
Peter bar Mark, p. 238. 
Polycarp, a priest, p. 173. See also Peter bar 

Joseph. 

Rabbula, p. 85. 
Romanus, p. 128. 
Romanus, p. 132. 

Saba, a deacon, pp. 100 and 101. 
Sabar, or Sabar-Yeshu', p. 214. 



Sabarta, p. 208. 

Sahda, p. 133. 

Sahda, p. 180 (perhaps the same as the pre- 
ceding). 

Sahda bar John, p. 210. 

Saliba, p. 170. 

Saliba, p. 244. 

Saliba, son of Manaya, p. 193. 

Saliba Zake, p. 216. 

Salibun, or Saliba, p. 145. 

Samuel, p. 130. 

Samuel bar Cyriacus, a priest, p. 131. 

Samuel bar Cyriacus, a priest and stylite, p. 176. 
(Probably the same as the preceding, and per- 
haps identical with the foregoing Samuel). 

Sergius, p. 82. 

Serguna, p. 95. 

Severus, p. 90. 

Simeon, p. 157. 

Simeon, a deacon, p. 140. 

Stephen, p. 213. 

Stephen bar Matthew, p. 167. 

Theodore, p. 150. 

Theodore, p. 174. 

Theodore bar Abu '1-Faraj, a monk, p. 139 0). 

Theodosius, a priest, p. 114. 

Thomas, a deacon, p. 84. 

Yamin bar ^nAr^Ga , a priest, p. 206. 
Yeshu', an archdeacon, p. 229. 
Yeshu', son of Manaya, p. 193. 
Yeshu' bar Andrew, p. 129. 
YesrnY bar David, a priest, p. 191. 
Yeshu* bar John, a priest, pp. 135 and 136. 

Zaina, p. 187. 

Zechariah bar Joseph, a deacon, p. 226. 

Zosimus ibn David, p. 248. 



VII 
INDEX OF OTHER PERSONS 1 



Aaron, the brother of Moses, p. 195. 

'Abdun, see Mar John, Patriarch of Antioch. 

Abu 'Ali Zakariya, p. 129. 

Alexander, the son of John Hyrcanus and high 

priest, p. 195. 
Aphthonios, pp. 160, 174. 
Aphtonia, pp. 160, 174. 
'Aziz, the father of a scribe, p. 239. 

Bahrain V, p. 177. 

Basil, Metropolitan of Tagrlt, p. 114. 

Chosroes II, pp. 211, 212. 

Dionysius of Tell-Mahre, p. 156. 
Dionysius, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 114. 

Elias, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 146. 
Evagrius, p. 149. 

Gregory Nazianzen, p. 126. 

Hormizda, a deacon, p. 232. 
Hyrcanus, see John Hyrcanus. 

Isaac, a monk, p. 116. 

Isaiah, an Egyptian monk, p. 89. 

Jacob, a martyr, p. 177. 

Jacob Baradaeus, p. 95. 

Jacob of Edessa, pp. 80, 98, 102. 

Jacob, Patriarch of Egypt (i. e. Alexandria), p. 

114. 
John II, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 146. 
John III, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 156. 
John, an anchorite, p. 98. 
John Hyrcanus, p. 195. 
John of Apamea, pp. 82, 108, no, 114, 148, 

149, 155, 158, 162. 
John of Telia, p. 104. 



Julian the Apostate, pp. 56, 80. 

Luke, the evangelist, p. 105. 

Manaya, the father of two scribes, p. 193. 
Mar Athanasius III, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 146. 
Mar George, an abbot, p. 76. 
Mar Isaac, Bishop of Harran, p. 146. 
Mar Jacob r€.n£n&^73 , p. 177. 
Mar John, Patriarch of Antioch, p. 169. 
Mar Thomas, Bishop of Claudia, p. 169. 
Mar Thomas, Metropolitan of Samosata, p. 169. 
Mar Zechariah, Patriarch of Alexandria, p. 169. 
Moses of Nisibis, pp. 58, 63, 65, 79, 86, 89, 93, 
108, 114, 124, 147, 153. 

Nilus the Monk, p. no. 

Palladius, p. 122. 

Paul of Callinicus, p. 80. 

Paul of Edessa, see Paul the Abbot. 

Paul of Telia, p. 96. 

Paul the Abbot, pp. 102, 118, 147, 152. 

Peter the Iberian, p. 157. 

Plutarch, p. 117. 

Rullus, a consul, p. 61. 
Rutilius, a consul, p. 61. 

Sargis of Ras-'ain, see Sergius of Ras- ain. 
Sergius of Ras- ain, pp. in, 117, 224. 
Simeon, p. 160. 
Simeon, the father of a scribe, p. 233. 

Tagritans, p. 129. 

Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus, p. 69. 

Yezdegerd I, p. 177. 
Yezdegerd II, p. 177. 



1 Names which occur in the titles of literary works are not included in this index. See also the Index 
of Syriac Names and Words and the Index of Arabic Names and Words. 



277 



VIII 
INDEX OF CHURCHES AND CONVENTS 1 



A. Churches: 

Holy Apostles in Edessa, p. 105. 

Mar Ahudemmeh in Harran, pp. 115, 116. 

Mar George in Qara, p. 243. 

Mar Thomas, p. 167. 

Mar Thomas in t^A^aX , p. 231. 

Mar Thomas the Apostle, p. 134- 

Mar Thomas the Apostle in Mosul, p. 187. 

St. Mary, p. 208. 

St. Mary Deipara in Horns, p. 200. 

B. Convents: 

Anba (or Abba) Bishoi in Nitria, pp. 87, 115. 

Anba Musa in Antioch, p. 249. 

Bassus, p. 88. 

Beth-' Abe near GoArtt rdArUjJ , p. 225. 

f^*AfiQ^t<! iura, p. 142. See also St. Mary 

Deipara in Edessa. 
Beth-Aphtunaya, p. 104. 
Beth Mar Qanon the Saint, p. 97. 
Beth Mar Simeon in Qartamin, p. 107. 
Beth-Quqa near the river Zaba Rabba in the 

district of Adiabene, p. 214. See also Rabban 

Mar Sabar-Yeshu. 
Elias the Prophet, or Mar Elias, on the Black 

Mountain near Antioch, pp. 172, I73> 2 35- 

See also Mar Panteleemon. 
Forty Holy Martyrs on the Dry River in the 

district of Melitene, p. 127. 
Forty Martyrs. See Mar Behnam. 
Gubba Barraya, p. 84. 
Mar Aaron in r£*\^JT. m the district of 

K-TOGaAo, p. 126. 
Mar Aha, p. 234. 

Mar Ananias near Mardin, pp. 140, 191. 
Mar Bar-sauma in the district of Mardin, p. 186. 
Mar Basil, which belonged to the district of 

Damascus, p. 247. 
Mar Behnam and Sara his Sister and the 

Forty Martyrs his Fellows, p. 209. 

Mar Christopher in A*r^I3<^ , p. 236. 



Mar Cyriacus, p. 78. 

Mar Daniel in vvlox , p. 73. 

Mar Elias in the district of Amida, p. 138. 
Mar Elias "in the land of the Two Cities," 

p. 207. 
Mar Elias near Mosul, p. 123. 
Mar Elias on the Tigris, p. 218. 
Mar Eusebius in t^Al^slt r^S^> near 

Apamea, p. 69. 
Mar Gabriel, see Mar Samuel. 
Mar Gabriina, p. 221. 
Mar George el-Kafur on Mount Lebanon, p. 

244. 
Mar Jacob of Beth-' Abe, p. 222. 
Mar John, p. 234. 
Mar John in Beth-Zagba, p. 85. 
Mar John in Nairab, p. 76. 
Mar Matthew, p. 210. 
Mar Matthew in the mountain of Aleppo, p. 

102. 
Mar Michael in the Desert of Mareia in Egypt, 

p. 148. 
Mar Moses in the mountain of Tennana, p. 

197. 
Mar Panteleemon on the Black Mountain near 

Antioch, pp. 172, 173. See also Elias the 

Prophet. 
Mar Saliba in Edessa, pp. 179, 180. 
Mar Saliba Zakkaya in Tur-'Abdin, p. 137. 
Mar Samuel, Mar Simeon, and Mar Gabriel, 

p. 195. See also Qartamin. 
Mar Shaina in the district of Germanicia in 

Mar'ash, p. 168. 
Mar Simeon, see Mar Samuel. 
Mar Simeon the Pharisee in Jerusalem, p. 133. 

See also St. Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem. 
Mar Solomon near Dulichium, p. 157. 
Natpha east of Mardin, p. 196. See also St. 

Mary Deipara east of Mardin. 
Pesilta, p. 117. 
icu^.& , p. 58. 
Pure Monks, p. 98. 



1 See also the Index of Syriac Names and Words. 



278 



INDEX OF CHURCHES AND CONVENTS 



279 



Qarqaphta, p. 151. 

Qartamin, p. 195. See also Mar Samuel. 

Qenubin on Mount Lebanon, p. 205. See also 

St. Mary on Mount Lebanon. 
Rabban Mar Sabar-Yeshu' near the river Zaba 

Rabba in the district of Adiabene, p. 214. 

See also Beth-Quqa. 
Rabban Joseph opposite Balad, p. 216. 
St. Mary Deipara east of Mardin, p. 196. See 

also Natpha. 
St. Mary Deipara in Edessa, pp. 135, 136, 141, 

142. See also r^alflo^r^f dura . 
St. Mary Deipara in Gazarta in the region of 

Alexandria, pp. 130, 131. 
St. Mary Deipara in Nitria, pp. 55, 58, 61, 

63, 65, 66, 79, 84, 86, 88, 89, 92, 93, 102, 

107, 108, 114, 121, 124, 129, 142, 143, 



144, 147, 149, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 
159, 162, 163, 165, 170, 175, 188, 190, 
202, 203, 238. 

St. Mary Deipara on the river Kaftun near 
Tripolis, p. 241. 

St. Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem, p. 133. See 
also Mar Simeon the Pharisee in Jerusalem. 

St. Mary on Mount Lebanon, p. 205. See also 
Qenubin on Mount Lebanon. 

GaGX&fiQ, p. 192. 

Sara, see Mar Behnam. 

Specula near Ras-'ain, p. 101. 

Syrian in Jerusalem, p. 132. 

Syrian Orthodox of St. Mark in Jerusalem, 
pp. 141, 145. This convent and the pre- 
ceding one are probably the same. 



IX 



INDEX OF CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, ETC. 1 



Abba Paul, inner desert of, p. 164. 

'Abud, pp. 249, 250. 

Adiabene, district of, p. 214. 

Aleppo, pp. 97, 204. See also Beroea. 

Aleppo, mountain of, p. 102. 

Alexandria, pp. 104, 130, 131, 157, 169, 176. 

Amida, pp. 55, 58, 117, 138, 156, 164. 

Antioch, pp. 97, 114, 117, 146, 156, 169, 172, 

173, 2,35, 249, 250. 
Antioch of the Arabs, p. 249. 
Antiochia ad Chrysorrhoam, p. 249. 
Apamea, pp. 69, 82, 108, no, 114, 148, 149, 

155, 158, 162. 

Balad, pp. 215, 216. 

Barbaita, p. 233. 

Bartella, pp. 188, 189. 

Batnae, see Batnan. 

Batnan, pp. 53, 72, 79, 88, no, 114, 119, 148, 

149, 153, 155- 
Beroea, p. 204. See also Aleppo. 

Beth-' Abe, pp. 222, 225. 
Beth-Maiya, p. 117. 
Beth-Nuhadra, district of, p. 211. 
Beth-Severina, p. 178. 
Beth-Zagba, p. 85. 
Black Mountain, pp. 172, 173, 235. 
Boar's Head, pp. 172, 173, 235. 



Cairo, p. 

80. 



_ — , r . 176. 
Callinicus, p, 



8, 147, 152, 206. 



Callinicus, p. 80. 
Chalcedon, p. 248. 
Claudia, p. 169. 
Cyprus, pp. 102, n 
Cyrus, pp. 69, 168. 

Damascus, pp. 241, 247. 
Dard, pp. 149, 238. 
Dqus, see ed-Dqus. 
Dry River, the, p. 127. 
Dulichium, pp. 157, 186. 
Duqsa, pp. 235, 249. 

East, land of the, pp. 131, 215. 
East, the, p. 141. 

1 See also the Index of Syriac Names and Words and the Index of Arabic Names and Words. Consult 
also the Index of Hebrew, Greek, and Coptic Names and Words. 

280 



ed-Dqus, p. 249. 

Edessa, pp. 52, $7, 63, 67, 70, 71, 74, 79, 80, 
98, 99, 102, 105, 108, in, 112, 113, 118, 
121, 130, 133, 135, 136, 141, 142, 147, 152, 
155, 179, 180, 181. 

E gyp^ PP- J 48, 149, 157. 

Egypt, mountain of, p. 188. 

el-Mansuriyeh, p. 234. See also Mansuriyeh. 

el-Quds, p. 249. 

Ephesus, pp. 69, 157. 

Ephraim, Mount, p. 249. 

er-Rummaneh, p. 241. 

Euphrates, the, p. 103. 

ez-Zabadani, p. 241. 

Gadmin, p. 160. 

Gargar, p. 210. 

Gaza, p. 157. 

Gazarta, pp. 130, 131, 176, 232. 

Gazarta de-Beth-Zabdai, p. 233. 

Gerasa, p. 249. 

Germanicia, p. 168. 

Hah, p. 191. 

Hardin, p. 246. 

Harran, pp. 115, 116, 122, 146, 162, 217. 

Harqel, p. 194. 

Heqal, p. 206. 

Hisn Zaid, p. 129. 

Horns, p. 200. 

India, pp. 226, 231. 

Jerash, p. 249. 

Jerusalem, pp. 132, 133, 141, I45» I 53> 2IO > 

239, 249,^250. 
Jeziret Qardu, p. 200. 

Kaftun, a river, p. 241. 
Kaphra, p. 199. 
Kephar-Tauretha, pp. 118, 152. 

Lebanon, Mount, pp. 205, 242, 244. 

Ma arrath Mesren, p. 97. 



INDEX OF CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, ETC. 



281 



Mabbug, pp. 59, 161 



Ma'dan 



p. 131. 



Maiumas, p. 157. 

Malabar, pp. 226, 231. 

Ma'lula, p. 237. 

Mansuriyeh, p. 234. See also el-Mansuriyeh. 

Mar ash, p. 168. 

Mardin, pp. 140, 186, 191, 196. 

Mareia, desert of, p. 148. 

Melitene, pp. 127, 166. 

Mesopotamia, pp. 129, 145, 149, 215. 

Mosul, pp. 123, 142, 186, 187, 188, 189, 207, 

228, 229, 230, 232, 234. 
Mount Ephraim, see Ephraim, Mount. 
Mount Lebanon, see Lebanon, Mount. 

Nairab, p. 76. 

Nikios, p. 176. 

Niraba, p. 131. 

Nisibis, pp. 58, 63, 65, 79, 86, 89, 93, 108, 114, 
124, 147, 153, 212. 

Nitria, pp. 55, 56, 58, 61, 63, 65, 66, 79, 84, 86, 
87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 102, 107, 108, 114, 115, 
121, 124, 129, 142, 143, 144, 147, 149, 153, 
155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 163, 165, 170, 
175, 188, 190, 202, 203, 238. 

Nitria, desert of, p. 159. 

Palestine, pp. 249, 250. 
Peparethos, p. 117. 

Qara, pp. 240, 243. 
Qartamin, pp. 107, 195. 
Qaryathen Castra, p. 167. 



Ras-'ain, pp. 100, 101, ill, 117, 224. 
Romana Castra, pp. 135, 136. 
Rome, pp. 117, 205. 
Rummaneh, see er-Rummaneh. 

Salah, p. 139. 

Samosata, p. 169. 

Sarin Castra, p. 98. 

Sarmin, pp. 73, 81. 

Scete, desert of, pp. 114, 176. 

Scythopolis, p. in. 

Serug, pp. 53, 72, 79, 88, no, 114, 119, 148, 

149, 153, 155- 
Sigistan, p. 183. 
Syria, pp. 145, 206, 249. 

Tagrit, p. 114. 

Tell-Mahre, p. 156. 

Telia, pp. 96, 104, 228. 

Tennana, mountain of, p. 197. 

Thebaid, the, pp. 82, 108, no, 114, 148, 149, 

155, 158, 162, 
Tibneh, p. 249. 
Tigris, the, pp. 218, 232, 234. 
Tripolis, pp. 241, 242, 248. 
Tur-'Abdin, pp. 137, 139, 145, 178, 191, 199. 
Tur-laha, p. 117. 
Two Cities, land of the, p. 207. 

Zaba Rabba, a river, p. 214. 
Zabadani, see ez-Zabadani. 
Zeugma, pp. 118, 152. 
Zuqenin, p. 164. 



INDEX OF SYRIAC NAMES AND WORDS 



3Gra^Ar^ "U-M-lt^ Grar£, p- 250. 
r£du>-\£a r^-rar^, p. 8. 
CaGnard, p. 249. 
rdiA^eao ^cuiGK?, p- 103. 
**\Grd, p. 126. 
coizsrdncujt^, p- II6 - 

*Gra^Ar£> p- 2 5o. 
^3Gra^Ar£> pp. 249, 250. 
^!Gra^At^> P- 2 49- 

rddui^** SiAr£, p. 17- 

r^»:uzir£> P- 5 8 - 
iria^, p. 40. 
«03r^, p. 40. 

i^rtGnc? i. e. rd*i»r& P- 58. 
KHa^GaJ^T^ , p. 97- 
t^A^O^fiOT^, p. 97- 

r^A^a-tA^or^, p. 24. 
CaAAnSkflond> p- 101. 
urar^lrd* p. 151- 
r^^lr^ p. 11. 
v\G&nf<, p. 225. 
*t*^£Siaa r^diGdit^, p. 17. 

coAxni^ra, p. 186. 

KTdi^Gnra, p- 76. 

rdAlGra, p. 150. 

GaGX^ra, p. 251. 

T^»i^^rd dura, p. 142. 

rd\^. dura, p. 208. 

X»:iG.u dura, p. 142. 

r£»iG.**k dura, pp. 186, 187. 

A^2iA dura, p. 177. 

r^XA^n ^CUo ^\r?3 dura, p. 97* 

f^raGxa dura, p. 116. 
fZ73^ dura, pp. 186, 187. 

rdr^iar^ra, p. 85. 
t^-U^ra , p. 17. 

f^i*\ora, p. 76. 



t^ira KlraG^, p. 84. 
JLiarnG^, p. 234. 
K^ruxaaao r£iin^.:i r£\\^> p. 232. 
^104^, p. 17. 

"U^, p. 126. 
^AraoV^, p. 206. 

"\^0^> p. 210. 
r^jjAi^^, p. 228. 
gx%^, p. 43. 

rdindn, p- 238. 
r^33> p- 238. 

r£»G3, p. 17. 
rs£oaiaG:i, pp. 235, 249. 
ndduYa, p. 10. 
KM»n, p. 97- 
r^AGrcf^n, pp. 232, 234. 
rc^GAs, p- 186. 
r£&%, p. 24. 
rdvi> p. 238. 

G^cb, p. 40. 

GlCp, p. 4°- 

rdA^caG, p. 234. 
•\CoiG, P- ^77 * 

rizA r^rar^V P- 214. 
w^urvtV p* 129. 
r£*±\* P- 137. 

r^x*ra.3j> P- 97- 
v^jkX^rajj, p. 97- 
r£»\aJ> p. 17- 
<nAran c^dvUw, p. 225. 
^»ix^, p- 186. 



^floiAj, p. 213. 



282 



INDEX OF SYRIAC NAMES AND WORDS 



283 



r&GioG t^ttisJ^, p- 229. 
r^duiGduxJ^, p. 122. 

^luG* , p. 97- 
\g±, P- 97- 

r£r&"\G^> P- 2 3- 
\A^, p. 168. 
rddnra* rdfe^> p. 69. 
nd^Wi^v p. 140. 
c\b\2±^, p. 241. 

r^dicnovi, p. 150. 
A*runAr£ rar^d^, p- 207. 

rdwGA, p. 72. 

r£Hrzsr£z*3, p- 150. 

^GoodiGiduzTa* r^r&AGon r^'OardrTa, 

p. 52. 
rd»i^G\ r^iMr^rsi, p. 228. 
r^rarda Aa^r*, p. 233. 
rddu*:ua, p. 97. 
cddu273 A coz73 T^du*:U5a, p. 112. 
rddvvu* r£^a> p- IO - 
f<»ira, p. 193. 

t^ua^oarra, p. 17. 

•\T73^r73, p. 240. 

KJcoAt^ diaA»a K?dua*faj£a, p. 174. 

^1^273 dru^^a, p. 97. 

r^otti£ir73, p. 177- 

^^ter^a, p. 250. 

^■v^* p. 176. 

0**^2*1 > p- M8. 

rdraca"\^3' p. 100. 

rdxYU*> P- l $°- 

rd-aAoiw r^rzaGr^du GirxiAxr^, p- 146. 

-A^raxn Y^diGir^AxrTa, p. 115. 

OQGxa^rd du.ur^> P- 249- 
JUrdxtaaGi, p. 229. 
r^UaGA, p. 40. 

rddlGAf^a^Jto oAiaGA, p. 40. 
*<^*\Ga> p- 185. 
f^»<idi2u> pp. 106, 149, 158. 
r^iii^l, p. 56. 
K!dicorar^!a n^li-U, p. 157- 



r^tedu, pp- 106, 149, 158. 

^aAr^to, P« 206. 
L-OXa iraCQ, p. 214. 
rddnraaa, p. 208. 
r^du^^Gfio, p. 228. 
{*^£q^G£q, p. 235. 

r^aGflo, p. 114- 
CfeGtUto' P- 192. 
r£rzuflo> P- 99- 
rdm*Ga> p- 40. 
r^a^fta, p. 230. 
f<rnr?afia, p. n. 
uoaifia, p. 17. 
p£»n:n&fia, p. 221. 
rdlG^jua, p. 95. 
rd»A^AGr^ r^^-Uto, p. 24. 
r£dO^»x& ^A^-\^a, p. 27. 

w-a^rd^w, p. 98. 
^.oia ara^., p. 17. 
G*ra^., p- 169. 

GAn^.' p. 185. 
r^duiG^., p. 228. 
r€.b\*i'a±*.> p- 228. 
r^^A^., p. 232. 

f^CQA^., p. I94. 

-A^Ar^AA^, p. 230 
r^uw, > p« 168. 

COl»K?At^A^l2k> p. 172. 

r^XAXnn rdduoASk, p. 178. 
IG^S ^, p. 58. 
^■\^, pp. 221, 232. 
f^ojd^> P« 24. 

AaT^A^, pp. 236, 239. 

rd^jj)^, p. 23. 
r^ra^A^, p. 145. 

r^"\r^i3, p. 240. 
rdcaGo, p. 78. 
rdAn, p. 150. 
K!diGA^ 

p. 229. 



dur^G^! t^aH'^g^.^ f^Ao , 



284 

rd^oAxa, p. 169. 
r^Ctea-Xo, p- 12-6. 
r£hn, pp. 8, 9. 
rdwcm r£»io> p. 9- 
Si** l^ia, p. 233. 

ax\n, p. 232. 
^oA^aoia, p. 231. 
r^uKn' p- 150- m 
r£\\mn **duiia, p- 

rdx**** p. 129. 



167. 



INDEXES 



r^T^x, p. 126. 
v\Aox, p- 73- 
r£i^*x, p. 231. 
r£i*x> p- 168. 
rdA^ax, p. 226. 

c^aAuK^Av p. 129. 
rdldv p- 228. 
[i]cu*3iAAi, p. 211. 
r£u&\, p- i97- 
r£±Ji&\> P- 228. 



XI 



INDEX OF ARABIC NAMES AND WORDS 1 



ajf, P .xi, 


J> C J\,V- 11. 


«\*J\, p. 241. 


^JUjJl, p. 241 


J**wl, p. 249, 


ObJw , p. 248. 



U-^^j, p. 248. 

J^jS Ja*>, p. 42. 

^y,jO , p. 43. 
VjU, p. 237. 
t/^ijJl <^\^ t p. 249. 



1 Arabic names and words written with Syriac letters will be found in the Index of Syriac Names 
and Words. 

285 



XII 
INDEX OF HEBREW, GREEK, AND COPTIC NAMES AND WORDS. 3 



-a p. 43- 

tsy, p. 9. 

*Aya7riTOs (sic'), p. 109. 
/3ia, p. 76. 

ypafiarevs Qsic), p. 109. 
ct8o5, p. 1 5 * • 
c X co, p. 44- 
/caAa/xos, p. 9. 



Ma/ca/oioy/,01, p. 173. 
oucria, p. 151. 
7rpO(r<f)Opd, p. 160. 

HpO(J(f>OpLKOL, p. l6o. 

crTpoyyv\os, p. 24. 
Ta<£ou, p. 44. 
to Aov|, p. 249. 

Kxcp, p. 9- 



1 The titles of literary works are not included in this index. 

286